The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی


1 استادیار، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 استاد، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف


کیها­ن­شناسی مدرن، علمی متکی بر شواهد تجربی است ولی اصول فلسفی و پیش­فرض‌های متافیزیکی نقش بسیار مهمی در آن دارند. نظریه نسبیت عام اینشتین که یکی از ابزارهای اصلی کیها­­ن­شناسی است، یک نظریه فیزیکی موجبیتی است (به جز در تکینگی‌ها) و لذا انتظار می‌رود طبق معادلات میدان اینشتین بتوان تحول بزرگ-مقیاس جهان را پیش‌بینی کرد. اما کشف شتاب مثبت جهان در پایان قرن گذشته نشان داد که موضوع پیش‌بینی آینده جهان، چنان­که تصور می‌شد، میسر نیست. در این مقاله ضمن بررسی مبانی فلسفی علیّت فیزیکی، موجبیت و پیش‌بینی در نسبیت و کیهان­شناسی، از این ادعا دفاع می‌شود که پیش‌فرض‌های متافیزیکی کیهان­شناسان در پیش‌بینی آنها در مورد آینده جهان، شدیداً دخالت دارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Causality and Prediction in Modern Cosmology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Mokhtari 1
  • Mahdi Golshani 2

1 Assistant Professor, Shahid Beheshti University

2 Professor of Philosophy, Sharif University

چکیده [English]

The modern cosmology is based on the observational evidences, but several philosophical principles and metaphysical prejudices play an undeniable role in it. This paper surveys some important attitudes such as causality, prediction, determinism etc. in the general relativity and cosmology. The general relativity is a deterministic theory (apart from the singularities) and is applied in prediction of the universe large-scale evolution. However, the acceleration of the universe, noticed at the end of last century, leads to a revolutionary view in the prediction in the cosmology. Subsequently, because of the unknown nature of the acceleration driver, there is an unavoidable uncertainty in this prediction. It is asserted in this article that the cosmologists’ unscientific assumptions, veiled in their scientific claims, affect strictly on their outcomes.              

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • determinism and predictability
  • the horizon problem
  • cosmological principle
  • anthropic principle
  • dark energy
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