The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری فلسفه دین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم وتحقیقات، تهران

2 استادیار موسسه پژوهشی حکمت و فلسفه ایران

چکیده

با توجه به پیشرفت روز افزون علم زیست‌شناسی بخصوص در حوزه زیست‌شناسی تکاملی، این علم داعیه دار ارائه تبیین­های علمی در خصوص پدیده­های انسانی از جمله دین و اخلاق می­باشد. در خصوص منشاء رفتار اخلاقی در گونه انسان، گروهی از تکامل­دانان بر این باورند که رفتار اخلاقی در انسان در امتداد سیر تکوین حس اخلاقی در طول زمان و از گونه­های پست­تر پدید آمده­است، در حالی­که گروهی دیگر از زیست­شناسان تکاملی و فلاسفه اخلاق ضمن رد این نظریه، معتقدند آنچه در انسان رفتار اخلاقی نامیده می­شود رفتاری است که مختص انسان است و در هیچ گونه پست­تر دیگری یافت نمی­شود، چرا که رفتار اخلاقی در انسان همواره قرین نوعی ارزیابی و غایتمندی و تامل است، آنچیزی که در حیوانات پست­تر دیده نمی­شود. در این نوشتار در خصوص رفتار نوع­دوستانه بعنوان یک رفتار اخلاقی بحث خواهد شد و دیدگاه­های دو گروه پیرامون منشاء نوع­دوستی مورد نقد و بررسی قرار خواهد گرفت. از این­رو دو ادعا مورد بحث واقع می­شود: اول اینکه: تبیین­های زیستی از سرشت انسان به­تنهایی قادر نیست تمایز معنی­داری مابین چیستی و چگونگی رفتار اخلاقی در انسان و سایر حیوانات را ارائه دهد و برای این مهم باید تعریف متفاوتی از ماهیت انسانی ارائه نمود. دوم اینکه: ذات و سرشت انسان و نحوه زیست اجتماعی و فرهنگی او اقتضای هدفمندی فعل اخلاقی در انسان را دارد.

تازه های تحقیق

Extended Abstract

The Consideration of Evolutionary Explanation about Ethical Behavior: biological altruism & moral altruism

Haleh AbdullahiRad1, Hassan Miandari2

1PhD degree in philosophy of religion and modern issues of theology. Science and research branch. Islamic Azad University. Tehran. Iran-(halehabdullahiraad@yahoo.com)

2Assistant Professor – Institute for Research in Philosophy- Iran-Tehran-(  miandari@irip.ir) - (corresponding author)

Abstract:

According to development of biology, particularly in the field of evolutionary biology, this science claim presented scientific explanation about human phenomena, including religion and ethics. About the origin of moral behavior in humans, a group of evolutionary biologists believe that ethical behavior in human beings has developed during evolutionary process over time while the other group of them believes that there are many differences between animals and human in ethical behaviors. In this paper we will talk about the altruistic behavior as a moral behavior and views of two groups of biologists will be reviewed. We have discussed around two subjects: biological explanations could not present meaningful difference about the nature of ethical behavior in human and animals; and, human nature necessitated a special kind of finality in human being’s moral behaviors.

Key words: altruism, ethical behavior, finality, cultural evolution, evolutionary explanation

 

  1. 1.      Introdaction:

Evolutionary ethics, which examines the evolution of ethical behaviors in humans during the process of biological evolution, has become an important and influential topic in the field of evolutionary biology, And also for the close connection of ethics with the topic of religion and philosophy, it was discussed and thought in scientific-philosophical assemblies. One of the important issues in evolutionary ethics is that the preconditions of human moral behaviors exist in other types that have social life, so moral actions in humans, like other species, are only in process of evolution that has evolved to maintain survival and reproduction, but is actually the continuation of the moral behaviors that have been formed in the ancestors of man, the primates. Biologists have made various scientific explanations about the origin and cause of ethical behaviors and especially altruistic behaviors in animals. Group of them believes that morality in humans is formed along social tendency in animals. In this theory, the transfer of moral tendencies took place during the process of evolution and made social animals to be moral beings. This group of biologists  such France de waal ,claims that empirical evidences supports the many claims they say. Another group of evolutionists believes that pseudo-ethical behaviors in animals do not in any way affect the nature of human moral behavior. Amongst this group, biologists like Richard Dawkins evaluate human culture in confrontation with nature, and argue that ethical behavior is an obligatory choice for humans in a period of their evolution, and evolutionists such as Francisco Ayala believes that human rational development during evolution is considered to be the main factor in the fundamental difference about ethical behaviors in humans and another animals, So it is a specific attribute of human species. In this paper in order to get acquainted with two types of biological theories which are in two distinctly place, will be expressed. It is necessary to give a summary of the evolutionary strategies that presented in explaining the cause of the altruistic behaviors in different creatures. It will be pointed out to the unique characteristics of human beings which  distinguishes them from other species, further , philosophical explanation of human moral behavior in based of Kant's philosophy, will be expressed that It results is in meaningful differentiation of human moral behavior. What is emphasized by this paper is that biological explanations that are based on naturalism are ineffective in justifying the difference between the nature of the moral act in humans and animals.

2.TITLE:(MATERIAL AND METHOD)

This paper is written in an analytical way that compares two different views that are expressed by two different thinkers. The statements of each of them are expressed and compared.

What can be concluded from this article is a important subject about biological explanation of ethics: cant be discounted a definitive distinction between human and animals behaviors ,only based on the rational and biological differences between them.

2.SUBTITLES:

(1) evolutionary approaches about the explanation of altruistic behaviors

(1,1) gene selection

(1,2) group selection

(1,3) kin selection

(1,4) reciprocal altruism

(2) unique features of the human species

(3) two different explanations about the roots of human ethical behaviors

(4) non naturalistic explanation about human ethical behaviors

(5) analytic

(6)conclusion

REFERENCES:

-Avic,John.c & Ayala,F.J(2007)-In the light of evolution-The national academies press,Washington,D.C

- Ayala,F. J & Arp,R -(2010)- Contemporary debates in philosophy of Biology, Blackwell Publishing

-Ayala,F.J-(2007)- Darwins gift to science and religion – Joseph Henry presss ,  Washington dc

-Baniolo,G & De Anna (2006) -Evolutionary ethics and contemporary biology- Cambridge university press.

-Ayala, F. J. (1987). The Biological Roots of Morality. Biology and Philosophy,2,p. 235–252.  By  D. Reidel Publishing Company.

-Ayala.F.J & Cela-Condea.Camilo-(2004)-Evolution of Morality-In: Handbook Of Evolution ,Vol.I :the evolution of humans societies and cultures-Edit by:Waketits.F.m & Antweiler.C- WILEY-VCH Verlag CmbH & Co. KCaA

-De Waal F (1996) -Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals- (Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge, MA).

- De Waal, F.(2006)- Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved, Princeton University Press

- Dawkins,Richard.(2006)-The Selfish Gene-Oxford University Press.

-Dobzhansky, T. (1962). Mankind Evolving: The Evolution of the Human Species. New Haven: Yale University Press.

-Kant,Immanuel (1785) .Grandwork of the Metaphysics of Morals- translated &edited  by: Mary Gregor-Cambridge university press-1998

-Korsgaard,Christine.(2010)-The Sorce of Normativity-Cambrige University Press.

-Korsgaard,Christine.(2006)- Morality and the Distinctiveness of Human Action-in : Primates and Philosophers, How Morality Evolved- by: Frans de Waal-Princeton University Press

 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Consideration of Evolutionary Explanation about Ethical Behavior: Biological Altruism & Moral Altruism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Haleh Abdullahi rad 1
  • Hassan Miandari 2

1 PhD in philosophy of religion and modern issues of theology. Science and Research Branch. Islamic Azad University. Tehran

2 Assistant Professor, Institute for Research in Philosophy, Tehran

چکیده [English]

According to development of biology, particularly in the field of evolutionary biology, this science claim presented scientific explanation about human phenomena, including religion and ethics. About the origin of moral behavior in humans, a group of evolutionary biologists believe that ethical behavior in human beings has developed during evolutionary process over time while the other group of them believes that there are many differences between animals and human in ethical behaviors. In this paper we will talk about the altruistic behavior as a moral behavior and views of two groups of biologists will be reviewed. We have discussed around two subjects: biological explanations could not present meaningful difference about the nature of ethical behavior in human and animals; and, human nature necessitated a special kind of finality in human being’s moral behaviors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Altruism
  • ethical behavior
  • finality
  • cultural evolution
  • evolutionary explanation
-      Avic, John.c & Ayala, F.J (2007) In the light of evolution, Washington, D.C: The national academies press.
-      Ayala, F. J & Arp,R -(2010) Contemporary debates in philosophy of Biology, Blackwell Publishing.
-      Ayala, F.J-(2007) Darwin’s gift to science and religion, Washington dc: Joseph Henry press.
-      Baniolo, G & De Anna (2006) Evolutionary ethics and contemporary biology- Cambridge University press.
-      Ayala, F. J. (1987). The Biological Roots of Morality. Biology and Philosophy, 2, p. 235–252. By D. Reidel Publishing Company.
-      Ayala. F.J & Cela-Condea. Camilo-(2004) Evolution of Morality In: Handbook of Evolution, Vol.I: the evolution of humans societies and cultures-Edit by: Waketits. F.m & Antweiler.C- WILEY-VCH Verlag CmbH & Co. KCaA
-      De Waal F (1996) Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animal (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA).
-      De Waal, F. (2006) Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved, Princeton University Press
-      Dawkins,Richard.(2006)The Selfish Gene-Oxford University Press.
-      Dobzhansky, T. (1962) Mankind Evolving: The Evolution of the Human Species. New Haven: Yale University Press.
-      Kant, Immanuel (1785) Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals- translated &edited by: Mary Gregor-Cambridge university press-1998
-      Korsgaard, Christine. (2010)The Source of Normativity, Cambridge University Press.
-      Korsgaard, Christine. (2006) Morality and the Distinctiveness of Human Action-in: Primates and Philosophers, How Morality Evolved- by: Frans de Waal-Princeton University Press
CAPTCHA Image