The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفۀ هنر، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان

2 استادیار فلسفۀ هنر، دانشگاه بوعلی‌سینا، همدان

3 دانشیار پژوهشکده مطالعات فرهنگی و اجتماعی

چکیده

شرح لایب­نیتس از ادراک حسی برای درک سنت استتیک عقل­گرایانۀ آلمانی در قرن هجدهم بسیار حایز اهمیت است. تأملات او در این باب چارچوبی دکارتی دارد و برای دیدگاه­های او دربارۀ تجربۀ استتیکی بسیار کانونی است. او با توجه به ماهیت واضح ولی مغشوش ادراک حسی، مفهوم کمال و لذت را تبیین می­کند و از همین معبر ره به تعریف زیبایی می­برد. کمال عبارت است از نیرو یا توانایی متحدساختن ویژگی­های کثیر در یک ویژگی؛ لذت، از نظر او، عبارت است از احساس کمال در اشیا؛ زیبایی هم نزد او همانا تعمق یا تأمل بر امری لذت­بخش یا خوشایند، یا کمال شیء است. در این مقاله قصد داریم پس از بررسی اهمیت لایب­نیتس در استتیک آلمان، ماهیت ادراک حسی نزد او، و سپس رابطۀ آن را با تجربۀ استتیکی، کمال، لذت و زیبایی در سپهر استتیک او بکاویم و در اخر هم نقد و نظری بر استتیک او داشته باشیم.

تازه های تحقیق

The Relationship between Perception with Aesthetic Experience and Beauty in Leibniz’s Aesthetics

Davoud Mirzaei1, Ali Salmani2, Reza Mahouzi3

1 PhD. Student of Philosophy of Art, Bu’ali Sina University, Hamadan,

E-mail: Davidivad1981@gmail.com

2 Assistant Professor of Philosophy of Art, Bu’ali Sina University, Hamadan  (Corresponding Author), E-mail: Salmani@basu.ac.ir

3 Associate Professor, Institute of social and Cultural Studies, Tehran,

E-mail: mahoozi.reza@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Leibniz’s account of perception for understanding of German rationalistic aesthetic tradition in 18 century is very crucial and important. His account of sense qualities has a Cartesian framework and it is so central to his views on aesthetic experience. He explains the concept of perfection and pleasure based on the clear but confused nature of perception. Accordingly, he defines beauty as follows: perfection is the ability or power to unite multiple properties into one; pleasure is feeling perfection in things. Beauty, for him, is the contemplation or reflection upon the pleasurable, or perfection of things. Having investigated the importance of Leibniz in German aesthetics, we intend to figure out the nature of perfection and its relationship to aesthetic experience, perfection, and beauty in his aesthetics.

Keywords:Leibniz, perception, aesthetic experience, perfection, pleasure, beauty

 

  1. 1.    Liebniz Importance in German Rationalistic Aesthetic Tradition

Some commentators believe that Leibniz is the grandsire of German aesthetics, because it was Leibniz who formulated and introduced a great deal of the terminology, the psychology, and epistemology that lay behind Wolff’s and Baumgarten’s aesthetics, and indeed that of aesthetic rationalism as a whole. The entire tradition of aesthetic rationalism prior to Kant takes place on a Leibnizian foundation. Accordingly, German aesthetics grandsire is a good title for him.

  1. 2.    Leibniz on Sense Qualities

Leibniz’s account of sense qualities has a Cartesian framework and it is so important to his views on aesthetic experience. He elucidates the concept of perfection and pleasure based on the clear but confused nature of perception. Leibniz holds that sense qualities are clear but confused. They are clear because we recognize them immediately and distinguish them from one another; but they are confused because we cannot explain in what they consist or enumerate their distinguishing characteristics. Although as Leibniz said, nature of senses is to make things confused, yet he holds that senses could provide some form of cognition of reality, but a vague or inferior one.

3. The Relationship of Perception with Aesthetic Experience

Leibniz holds that aesthetic experience is an indescribable experience. Indescribablity of aesthetic experience is our inability to explicity recognize something that gives us pleasure. Leibniz calls this indescribable element of aesthetic experience “Je ne sais quoi” that is related to nature of senses, that is its confusedness. This feature is charactristic of aesthetic experience or, better to say, its merits.

4. Perfection, Pleasure and Beauty in Leibniz’ View

Perfection is the force or ability to unite multiple feature in one. According to him, pleasure is feeling of prrfection in things, whether in us or others. And, sice feeling is a kind of perception that based on Leibniz’s Cartesian taxonomy, is clear but confused, so feeling of pleasure is also clear and confused. For him, beauty is to contemplate or reflect the pleasurable, i.e. perfection of thing.

Leibniz holds that beauty is not merely subjective, but has both subjective nad objective aspects. It is subjective because it cotains feeling of pleasure; and it is objective because it involves particular structural quality of thing, that is harmony or unity in adversity which is perfection of thing.

For him, intellectual pleasure, hense intellectual beauty is a pattern of all kinds of pleasure and beauty. Sensory pleasures, hence sensory beauties are pleasurable to us only because they are a confused and semi-conscious form of conception of  harmony.

References

  1. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1669) “The Confession of Nature against Atheist,” in Philosophical Papers and Letters (1969) ed. L. Loemker, 2nd edn. (Dordrecht: Reidel).
  2. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1770-71) “Elements of Natural Law,” in Philosophical Papers and Letters (1969) trans. and ed. Leroy E. Loemker, 2nd edn, (Dordrecht: D. Reidel).
  3. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1675) “Letter to Foucher,” in Philosophical Essays (1989) eds. Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber, (Indianapolis: Hackett).
  4. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1776) “Two Notations for Discussion with Spinoza,” in Philosophical Papers and Letters (1969) trans. and ed. Leroy E. Loemker, 2nd edn. (Dordrecht: D. Reidel).
  5. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1684) “Meditations on Knowledge, Truth, and Ideas,” in Philosophical Essays (1989) eds. Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber. (Indianapolis: Hackett).
  6. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1686 a) “Discourse on Metaphysics,” in Philosophical Essays (1989) eds. Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber. (Indianapolis: Hackett).
  7. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1687) “Two Dialogues on Religion,” in Philosophical Papers and Letters (1969) trans. and ed. Leroy E. Loemker, 2nd edn. (Dordrecht: D. Reidel).
  8. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1693) “On Wisdom,” in Philosophical Papers and Letters (1969) trans. and ed. Leroy E. Loemker, 2nd edn. (Dordrecht: D. Reidel).
  9. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1702) “To Queen Sophie Shallotte of Prussia: On What Is Independent of Sense and Matter,” in Philosophical Essays (1989) eds. Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber. (Indianapolis: Hackett).

10.Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1702-3) “Reflection on the Common Concept of Justice,” in Political Writings (1988) ed. Patrick Riley, 2nd edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

11.Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1704 or 5) “From the Letters to Volder,” in Philosophical Essays, (1989) eds. Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber. (Indianapolis: Hackett).

12.Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1989) Philosophical Essays, eds. Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber. (Indianapolis: Hackett).

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship Between Perception with Aesthetic Experience and Beauty in Leibniz’s Aesthetics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davoud Mirzaei 1
  • Ali Salmani 2
  • Reza Mahoozi 3

1 PhD Candidate of philosophy of art, Bualisina University of Hamedan

2 Assistant Professor, BuAliSina University of Hamedan

3 Associate Professor, Institute of social and Cultural Studies

چکیده [English]

Leibniz’s account of perception for understanding of German rationalistic aesthetic tradition in 18 century is very crucial and important. His account of sense qualities has a Cartesian framework and it is so central to his views on aesthetic experience. He explains the concept of perfection and pleasure based on the clear but confused nature of perception. Accordingly, he defines beauty as follows: perfection is the ability or power to unite multiple properties into one; pleasure is feeling perfection in things. Beauty, for him, is the contemplation or reflection upon the pleasurable, or perfection of things. Having investigated the importance of Leibniz in German aesthetics, we intend to figure out the nature of perfection and its relationship to aesthetic experience, perfection, and beauty in his aesthetics.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leibniz
  • perception
  • aesthetic experience
  • perfection
  • Beauty
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