The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی


عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی شهر اردبیل


اساسِ فلسفه­ شیخ اشراق نور و اساسِ فلسفه ملاصدرا وجود است؛ از نظرِ ملاصدرا وجودِ موردِ نظرِ وی با نورِ اشراقی یکی است؛ حال آن­که شیخ اشراق لااقل قسمی از وجوداتِ مصطلح یعنی همان اجسام را نور نمی­نامد و از بین اجسام تنها به نور بودنِ نورِ حسی معتقد است؛ و همین نکته دشواری­های بسیاری در یکی دانستنِ نورِ اشراقی با وجود صدرایی فراهم می­آورد؛ تا این­که صدرا می­کوشد نسبت به هر دو بندِ سخنِ شیخ اشراق، موضع­هایی اتخاذ کند؛ و راه­حل­هایی برای همراهی وی با دیدگاه خود ارایه دهد. حاصلِ سخنِ صدرا در به چالش کشیدنِ نظرِ شیخ اشراق این است که «یا همه­ اجسام بهره­ای از نورانیت دارند و یا نورِ مادی هم نور نیست»؛ این مقاله با تقریرِ دیدگاه­های شیخ اشراق و خوانش­های ملاصدرا معتقد است با تکیه بر اصلِ «حقیقت و رقیقت» که مورد پذیرشِ ملاصدرا هم هست می­توان نشان داد سخنِ شیخ اشراق در طرح نظامِ نوری سازگار است؛ بنابراین «هم می­توان اجسام را ظلمانی دانست و هم نورِ مادی را نور».

تازه های تحقیق

Analyzing of Mulla Sadra's reading from Suhravrdi's idea on the relation of sensible light and incorporeal light

Ali Babaei

Assistant Professor of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, University of Muhaghegh Ardabili.


The main headstone of Illumination wisdom is light, such as the one of the transcendent wisdom is existence. According to Mulla sadra, the founder of transcendent wisdom, the existence in his philosophy is the same as the light in Suhrawardi's illuminative school. But there is some of existence kinds such as body that is not light in Suhrawardi doctrines; and he believes that only sensible light is a light among all of material things; this point of view is very powerful impediment to know that light and existence are same. So that, Mulla sadra make efforts to criticize the doctrine of Suhrawardi in this subject. Abstract of Mulla sadra criticizes is that: or all of material things are light or the sensible light also is not. This article want to explain that even according to the some principles of transcendent wisdom such as relation between "real and delicate"[1] there is no conflict between Suhrawardi idea; so also the matter is darken  and also the sensible light is light.  

Key words: light, existence,   Mulla Sadra, Suhrawardi, incorporeal light, sensible light

  1. 1.       INTRODUCTION

The philosophy of Suhrawardi, known as illumination wisdom, is a unique phenomenon in the history of Islamic philosophy. In spite of his short ages, Suhrawardi memorized an especial philosophy that influenced many later philosophers such as Mulla Sadra. Nevertheless, his philosophy could not growth as it should be. There is many reasons for its reverse that furthest reason return to the special character of Mulla Sadra and appearance of his transcendent wisdom and the especial kind of his interpretation of Suhrawardi idea.

1.1. Central principlesof suhrawardi philosophy: Suhrawardi's metaphysics of lights rests on at least two central principles which account for all the basic classes of beings (light and darkness, substance and state, independent and dependent beings). A first principle, Walbridge notes, “is a form of the principle of sufficient reason, ‘the principle of the most noble contingency’ […] which asserts that nothing can exist without a cause of higher ontological level” (PI, 90.1–92.25). A second principle is the Aristotelian “impossibility of an ordered, actual infinity” which, with the first principle, guarantees that “there cannot be an infinite number of levels of being and that there must be one being whose existence is necessary in itself—Avicenna's ‘Necessary of Existence’ (wajib al-wujud)”, the Light of Lights (Walbridge 2000: 24–5; PI, 87.1–89.8) (Ibid: Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy, Suhravardi). So there is a hierarchy of lights that the light of lights is on the top of hierarchy and the material light in the bottom.   

1.2. The definition of light: According to Suhrawardi, "Anything in existence that requires no definition or explanation is evident. Since there is nothing more evident than light, so there is nothing less in need of definition."  (Suhrawardi, 1996[T1] , v.2, p.106).

1.3. The common basis of being light: "Appearance" is common basis of being light.  "self-apparent that makes another apparent" is the criterion of Suhrawardi to being light. This appearance for the non-material objects is like as self-perception, but this self-perception is meaningless for the material objects because of their limited ranks of being.         

 According to Suhrawardi, the hierarchy of existence from the light of lights to the light of Divine command (esfahbood= human soul) is the alight reality. According to Mulla Sadra, this idea is acceptable and so adaptable with the existential principles of transcendent wisdom; because, we can say that this lights is existence. But the inadmissible point in Mulla sadra idea is that: Suhrawardi could not calls a kind of idiomatic existences, means: material things, as a light; and among of all material things Suhrawardi only considers the sensible lights as a light. Accepting the Unity between existence and light,  Mulla Sadra efforts that all of elements of  the existence is the same as the light; and so He try to show from many different ways that claim. It is bring out from the claim of Mulla Sadra that there is no difference between illuminate wisdom and transcendent wisdom except in some terms. There for this subject have an important contact with the overthrowing of illumination wisdom in transcendent one.

  1. 2.      Method

I used, in this study, descriptive analysis which are used by theoretical research groups.

  1. Findings and Argument:

  According to this article, even based on the some principles of Mulla Sadra, such as "real and its delicate", the matter is darken and also the material light is light.


Suhrawardi shows that appearance is the prerequisite of being light. This appearance is or the appearance for itself or appearance on the side of another ones. The first, according to the principle of "real and delicate",[2]  is the same spatiality of all ranks and another is the spatiality of one of the ranks. So, the light of light and the beings above of human soul is the light reality and the material light is the light for being delicate of that reality.     

  1. References
  1. Ibn Arabi, M. (1918) Ensha –Al- Davayer (= creation of circles). Leiden, Beryl.
  2. Babaei, A., (2016) analyzing the interpretation of Mulla Sadra from Suhrawardi's idea on light and existence, the knowledge studies in the Islamic UN. 20, 66, 57- 70.
  3. Sabzvari, M.H.(2008),The comments) Al-talighat) for Al-Shavahed Al-rububiyye, translated by: Babaei,A., Tehran: Moola.
  4. Suhrawardi, Sh., (1996) the complete of Suhrawardi works, Tehran: The institute of Cultural research and observations.
  5. Mulla Sadra, M., (1982), Interpretation of Qur'an Al Karim, Qom: Bidar.
  6. ---------- (2012) the comments for explanation of Hekmat Al Eshragh. Research by Mosavi, S. M. Tehran: Hekmat.
  7. ---------- (2008) Al-Shavahed Al-rububiyye translated by Babaei,A., Tehran: Moola.
  8. ---------- (1989) the transcendent wisdom in the four journey (Al Asfar Al arbaea). Qom: Mostafavi.
  9. Hamadani, S.A., (1991) stations of the Gnostics, Tehran: Mostofi library.
  10. Walbridge, J., (2000). The Leaven of the Ancients: Suhrawardi and the Heritage of the Greeks, Albany (NY): State University of New York Press

[1] . Al-haghighe ve Al-raghighe.

[2] . Al-haghighe ve al-raghighe.



عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing of Mulla Sadra's Reading from Suhravrdi's Idea on the Relation of Sensible Light and Incorporeal Light

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Babaei

university of Mohagge Arabil

چکیده [English]

The main headstone of Illumination wisdom is light, just as the one of the transcendent wisdom is existence. For Mulla Sadra, the existence is the same as the light in Suhravardi, idea. But there is some of existence kinds such as body that is not light in Suhravardi doctrines and he believe that only sensible light is one kind of light among all of bodes; this point of view is very powerful impediment to know that light and existence are same. So, Mulla Sadra make efforts to criticize the doctrine of Suhravardi in this subject. Mulla Sadra’s criticism is that or all of materials are light or the material light, too, is not light. This paper aims to explain that even according to the some principles of transcendent philosophy, such as relation between truth and it's thin (haghighe ve raghighe), there is no contradiction in Suhravardi’s view. Thus, both the matter is darken and the material light is light.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • light
  • existence
  • Mulla Sadra
  • Suhravardi
  • incorporeal light
  • sensible light
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