The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی

چکیده

این نوشتار در پی توضیح امکان بهره­گیری از روش­شناسی­های پست مدرن در الهیات است. انجام این مهم ضمن سه گامِ توضیح زمینه­های­ نظری حاکم بر دیدگاه­های مخالف با امکان چنین بهره­گیری­‌هایی­، بررسی چندوچون وقوع آن با توجه به ادبیات «الهیات پست مدرن» و، نهایتاً، اقامه استدلال مبنی بر صحت معرفت شناختی امکان بهره­گیری­هایی از این دست تعقیب گردیده است. در واپسین گام، که بخش نهایی هسته نظری نوشتار را عرضه می­دارد، تلاش شده است صحت و معنای بهره برداری روش شناسانه از پست مدرنیسم طی مطالعه ای الهیاتی توضیح داده شود؛ و این مهم، بر اساس منطق معرفت شناختی حاکم بر رویکردی از این دست، اثبات گردد. جهت انجام این مهم ایده‌هایی هم­چون تقدم معرفت شناسی بر هستی شناسی در مطالعه ای پست مدرن از امر الهیاتی به بحث نهاده شده است و گشودگی معرفت شناختی نظریه‌های پست مدرن در مواجهه با الهیات موضوع تامل واقع گردیده است.

تازه های تحقیق

The Contingency and the Realization of Using Postmodern Methodologies in Theological Studies

Abdolmajeed Moballeghi

Assistance professor, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies,

E-mail:A.Moballeghi@ihcs.ac.ir

Abstract

This Paper tries to prove that it is possible to use postmodern methodologies in Islamic theological studies. Accordingly, the three main steps in this paper are taken to defend this thesis. The first step explains that the Iranian philosophical mentality disregards any use of postmodernism in Islamic studies.  The paper points out that the problem with this mentality is that this mentality usually sees a fundamental contradiction between materialism and relativism in postmodernism and Islamic understanding of theology. In the second step, the paper shows that, contrary to this understanding of the relation between postmodernism and Islamic theology, the use of postmodernism as a methodology in theological studies opens up new horizons of critical thinking in Islamic studies. In this regard the paper explains how the process of applying postmodern methodologies to theological studies can be justified if we rely on an epistemological feature of postmodernism: Postmodern methodologies defend the preference of epistemology over ontology. In the third step, in order to explain the realization of this thesis in the real world, it shows how Christian theology could well use postmodern methodology and create a valuable postmodern theological literature. This comparison is based on the assumption that theology, Christian and Islamic, have the same ontological similarity in defending the theological metaphisics and in rejecting the modern ontological cognitive.

Keywords: Theology, Methodology, Postmodernism, Religious studies

Introductıon

Many Iranian thinkers believe it is impossible to apply postmodern methodologies to theological studies. It is more emphasized on Islamic studies. They think there are some ontological and epistemological differences between postmodernism and Islam that makes these two discipline incompatible and, therefore, fruitless.  More specifically they focus on an important epistemic contradiction between the two: Relativism in postmodernism and epistemological realism in Islamic theology.

Objective

The purpose of this paper is to reject this approach more or less well-known approach.

It shows that, firstly, the use of postmodernism in theology as a methodology, in general, and in Islamic theology, in a particular way, is both possible and desirable.

Argument

The central argument of the paper in defense of its thesis relies on an important feature of postmodern epistemology as a method: the preference of epistemology over ontology when Postmodernism is used as a methodology. The central point is the epistemological openness of the postmodernism to a varied understanding of how the world can be seen within a theological framework (Scheurich, 1997:29). It should be explained here that it does not mean that postmodernism would prefer theological understanding to other disciplines; rather, the main point is that postmodernism, in contrast to modernism, does not refuse the theology for its ontological and materialist attitudes. The paper also illustrates the realization of this approach in the real world. For this purpose, the paper outlines some of the most important and most successful theological theories that are based on the attitude or methodology of postmodernism in Western thought. (Griffin, Beardslee, Holland, 1989:3)

Conclusion

The paper concludes that postmodern methodologies, in contrast to modern methodologies, have opened up new theoretical possibilities for Islamic studies to develop a critical knowledge within its own epistemological framework. The paper explains that modern methodologies, in their historical context, also created a new atmosphere of discussion and study in Islamic theology. However, the important point is that these methodologies did not help widely to develop a critical thought within the framework of Islamic theology; Instead, it helped to emerge a set of polarized and radical ideas and judgments about the possibility or impossibility of a theological approach based on an Islamic understanding.

Suggestions

Finally, the paper proposes to return to the Islamic tradition in terms of postmodern theological studies in order to develop our critical understanding of Islamic theology.

References:

- Allan, Kenneth (1998). The meaning of culture: moving the postmodern critique forward. Greenwood Publishing Group.

- Anton, Donald K. and Shelton (2011) , Dinah. Environmental Protection and Human Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

- Beck, Ulrich (2010). A God of One's Own: Religion's Capacity for Peace and Potential for Violence. Cambridge: Polity

- Cady, Linell and Brown, Delwin [Ed.]. Religious studies, theology, and the university: conflicting maps, changing terrain. Albany, NY : State University of New York Press, 2002  

- Carrette, Jeremy (2002). Foucault and religion: spiritual corporality and political spirituality. London: Routledge

- Ferré, Frederick (1996). Being and value: toward a constructive postmodern metaphysics. Albany: State University of New York Press.

- Gritsch, Eric W. and Jenson, Robert W. (1976). Lutheranism: The Theological Movement and its Confessional Writings. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

- Gullestrup, Hans (2006). Cultural analysis: towards cross-cultural understanding. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press

- Hakken, David (2003). The knowledge landscapes of cyberspace. Taylor & Francis.

- Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy and Leavy, Patricia (2010). The Practice of Qualitative Research. London: sage.

- Kearney, Richard (1995). States of mind: dialogues with contemporary thinkers on the European mind . Manchester : Manchester University Press. 

- Masih, Y. (1999) Critical History of Western Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ

- Michener, Ronald T. (2007). Engaging deconstructive theology. Aldershot : Ashgate, 2007.

- Neubauer, John (1999). Cultural History After Foucault. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

- Ray Griffin, David and A. Beardslee and William and Holland, Joe (1989). Varieties of postmodern theology. Albany: State University of New York Press.

- Sedgwick, Peter (2001). Descartes to Derrida: an introduction to European philosophy. John Wiley & Sons

- Re Manning, Russell (2004).Theology at the end of culture: Paul Tillich's theology of culture and art. Chapter 4. Leuven: Peeters.


کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Contingency and the Realization of Using Postmodern Methodologies in Theological Studies

نویسنده [English]

  • Abdolamjeed Moballeghi

Assistant Professor, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies

چکیده [English]

This Paper tries to prove that it is possible to use postmodern methodologies in Islamic theological studies. Accordingly, the three main steps in this paper are taken to defend this thesis. The first step explains that the Iranian philosophical mentality disregards any use of postmodernism in Islamic studies.  The paper points out that the problem with this mentality is that this mentality usually sees a fundamental contradiction between materialism and relativism in postmodernism and Islamic understanding of theology. In the second step, the paper shows that, contrary to this understanding of the relation between postmodernism and Islamic theology, the use of postmodernism as a methodology in theological studies opens up new horizons of critical thinking in Islamic studies. In this regard the paper explains how the process of applying postmodern methodologies to theological studies can be justified if we rely on an epistemological feature of postmodernism: Postmodern methodologies defend the preference of epistemology over ontology. In the third step, in order to explain the realization of this thesis in the real world, it shows how Christian theology could well use postmodern methodology and creates a valuable postmodern theological literature. This comparison is based on the assumption that theology, Christian and Islamic, have the same ontological similarity in defending the theological metaphysics and in rejecting the modern ontological cognitive.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Theology
  • Methodology
  • Postmodernism
  • Religious studies
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-        تاجیک، محمدرضا (1385). نظریه گفتمان و مطالعات اسلامی. علوم سیاسی. شماره 35.
-        حقیقت، سید صادق (1384). گفتمان و مطالعات اسلامی و ایرانی. پژوهش و حوزه. شماره 21 و 22.
-        حقیقت، سید صادق (۱۳۸۱).ملاحظاتی در باب قدرت، دانش و مشروعیت در اسلام. نامه مفید. شماره ۳۲.
-        فیرحی، داوود (۱۳۷۸). قدرت، دانش و مشروعیت در اسلام. تهران: نشر نی.
-        منوچهری، عباس و حقیقت، سید صادق (۱۳۸۲). نشست نقد کتاب؛ دانش سیاسی مسلمانان در دوره میانه. کتاب ماه علوم اجتماعی. شماره ۷۳ و ۷۴.
-        Allan, Kenneth (1998). The meaning of culture: moving the postmodern critique forward. Greenwood Publishing Group.
-        Anton, Donald K. and Shelton (2011), Dinah. Environmental Protection and Human Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-        Beck, Ulrich (2010). A God of One's Own: Religion's Capacity for Peace and Potential for Violence. Cambridge: Polity
-        Cady, Linell and Brown, Delwin [Ed.]. Religious studies, theology, and the university: conflicting maps, changing terrain. Albany, NY : State University of New York Press, 2002  
-        Carrette, Jeremy (2002). Foucault and religion: spiritual corporality and political spirituality. London: Routledge
-        Ferré, Frederick (1996). Being and value: toward a constructive postmodern metaphysics. Albany: State University of New York Press.
-        Gritsch, Eric W. and Jenson, Robert W. (1976). Lutheranism: The Theological Movement and its Confessional Writings. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
-        Gullestrup, Hans (2006). Cultural analysis: towards cross-cultural understanding. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press
-        Hakken, David (2003). The knowledge landscapes of cyberspace. Taylor & Francis.
-        Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy and Leavy, Patricia (2010). The Practice of Qualitative Research. London: sage.
-        Kearney, Richard (1995). States of mind: dialogues with contemporary thinkers on the European mind. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 
-        Masih, Y. (1999) Critical History of Western Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ
-        Michener, Ronald T. (2007). Engaging deconstructive theology. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.
-        Neubauer, John (1999). Cultural History after Foucault. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
-        Ray Griffin, David and A. Beardslee and William and Holland, Joe (1989). Varieties of postmodern theology. Albany: State University of New York Press.
-        Sedgwick, Peter (2001). Descartes to Derrida: an introduction to European philosophy. John Wiley & Sons
-        Re Manning, Russell (2004).Theology at the end of culture: Paul Tillich's theology of culture and art. Chapter 4. Leuven: Peeters.
-        Rosemann, Philipp (1999). Understanding scholastic thought with Foucault. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
-        Scheurich, James Joseph (1997). Research method in the postmodern. London: Routledge
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