The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فلسفه دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

   کانت با اطلاق صفت «پراگماتیکی» بر انسان­شناسی خود، موضع انتقادی خود را نسبت به انسان­شناسی سنتی، جغرافیای طبیعی، روان­شناسی تجربی، و انسان­شناسی فیزیولوژیکی اعلام می­دارد. او با این کار، انسان را نه به عنوان ذات، جوهر، شیء، و نفس، بلکه بر اساس سه سطح عمل او(سطح تکنیکی، سطح پراگماتیکی، و سطح اخلاقی) مورد مطالعه قرار می­دهد. هدف این مقاله این است که با بررسی ریشه، معنا و مفاد انسان­شناسی کانت، به این پرسش پاسخ بدهد که «آیا ارتباطی میان انسان­شناسی کانت و فلسفة انتقادی او وجود دارد یا نه؟» به نظر می­رسد انسان­شناسی کانت، بدون اتکاء به یک اصل غایی، نمی­تواند کار خود را پیش ببرد. بنابراین، بررسی مطلب فوق، ما را به این نتیجه می­رساند که کانت  انسان­شناسی و فلسفة انتقادی را از طریق حکم تأملی به هم مرتبط می­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Contemplations in Kant’s Pragmatic Anthropology

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammadreza Abdollahnejad

چکیده [English]

By predicating the adjective “pragmatic” to his anthropology, Kant declares his critical position to traditional anthropology, natural geography, empirical psychology and physiological anthropology. So, he defines man not as a substance, an essence or a thing on the earth, but as a being who acts according to three levels of “man’s praxis” (the level of technicality, prudence and morality). The aim of this paper is to investigate about origin, meaning and content of Kant’s anthropology, in order to answer the question “is there any relationship between Kant’s anthropology and his critical philosophy?” It seems that Kant’s anthropological project, without depending on a teleological principle, cannot succeed. After evaluating this assertion, we find that the required teleological principle is reflective judgment by means of which Kant correlates his anthropology and critical philosophy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pragmatic anthropology
  • human nature
  • Technical predisposition
  • Pragmatic predisposition
  • Moral predisposition
  • reflective judgment
-کورنر، اشتفان.( 1380 )، فلسفهکانت، ترجمه عزتالله فولادوند. تهران، خوارزمی.
-Cassirer, Ernest. (1981), Kant’s life and Thought.
Translated by James Hayden. New Haven & London: Yale
University Press.
-Clark, D. (2001), “Kant’s Aliens: The Anthropology and
Its Others”. CR: The New Centennial Review, 1(2).
-Cohen, A. A. (2006), “Kant on Epigenesist, Monogenesis
and Human Nature: The Biological Premises of Anthropology”.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical
Sciences. 37 (4).
-Eze, E. C. (1995), “The color of Reason: The Idea of 'race'
in Kant’s Anthropology”. In K. M. Faull (Ed.). Anthropology
and the German Enlightenment: Perspectives on Humanity.
London & Toronto: Associated University Press.
-Frierson, p. (2003), Freedom and Anthropology in Kant’s
Moral philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-Kant, I. (1885), Kant’s Introduction to Logic. Translated
by T. K. Abbott. London: Longmans, Green.
- ………..(1929), Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by
N. Kemp Smith. London: Macmillan.
-..................(1970), “Introduction to Physical Geography”.
Translated by J. A. May. In J. A. May (Ed.). Kant’s Concept of
Geography and Its Relation to Recent Geographical Thought.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
-…………(1983), perpetual Peace and Other Essays on
Politics, History and Morals. Translated by T. Humphrey.
Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
- ………… (1987), Critique of Judgment. Translated by W.
S. Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
ملاحظاتی در انسان شناسی پراگماتیکی کانت 159
- ………… (1996), Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point
of View. Translated by V. L. Dowdell. Carbondale &
Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.
-………… (1997), Lectures on Ethics. Translated by P.
heath. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-………… (1999), Correspondence. Translated by A.
Zweig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-………… (2001), “On the Use of Teleological Principles
in Philosophy”. Translated by J. M. Mikkelsen. In R. Bernasconi
(ed). Race. Oxford: Blackwell.
-………… (2002), “On a Recently Prominent Tone of
Superiority in Philosophy”. Translated by P. Heath. In H.
Allison, & P. Heath (Eds.). Theoretical Philosophy after 1781.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-………… (2003), On Education. Translated by A.
churton. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
-Larrimore, M. (1999), Sublime Waste: Kant on the
Destiny of the Races. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 25.
-Lestition, S. O.(1985), Kant’s Philosophical
Anthropology: Texts and Historical Contexts, Continuity and
change. Ph. D. thesis: University of Chicago.
-Louden, R. (2000), Kant’s Impure Ethics: from Rational
Beings to Human Beings. New York & Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
-May, J. A. (1970), Kant’s Concept of Geography and Its
Relation to Recent Geographical Thought. Toronto: University
of Toronto Press.
-Wilson, H. l. (2006), Kant’s Pragmatic Anthropology: Its
Origin, Meaning, and Critical Significance. Albany: state
University of New York Press.
-Wood, A. (1999), Kant’s Ethical Thought. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
-Zammito, J. H. (2002), Kant, Herder, and the Birth of
Anthropology. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
-کورنر، اشتفان.( 1380 )، فلسفهکانت، ترجمه عزتالله فولادوند. تهران، خوارزمی.
-Cassirer, Ernest. (1981), Kant’s life and Thought.
Translated by James Hayden. New Haven & London: Yale
University Press.
-Clark, D. (2001), “Kant’s Aliens: The Anthropology and
Its Others”. CR: The New Centennial Review, 1(2).
-Cohen, A. A. (2006), “Kant on Epigenesist, Monogenesis
and Human Nature: The Biological Premises of Anthropology”.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical
Sciences. 37 (4).
-Eze, E. C. (1995), “The color of Reason: The Idea of 'race'
in Kant’s Anthropology”. In K. M. Faull (Ed.). Anthropology
and the German Enlightenment: Perspectives on Humanity.
London & Toronto: Associated University Press.
-Frierson, p. (2003), Freedom and Anthropology in Kant’s
Moral philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-Kant, I. (1885), Kant’s Introduction to Logic. Translated
by T. K. Abbott. London: Longmans, Green.
- ………..(1929), Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by
N. Kemp Smith. London: Macmillan.
-..................(1970), “Introduction to Physical Geography”.
Translated by J. A. May. In J. A. May (Ed.). Kant’s Concept of
Geography and Its Relation to Recent Geographical Thought.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
-…………(1983), perpetual Peace and Other Essays on
Politics, History and Morals. Translated by T. Humphrey.
Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
- ………… (1987), Critique of Judgment. Translated by W.
S. Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
ملاحظاتی در انسان شناسی پراگماتیکی کانت 159
- ………… (1996), Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point
of View. Translated by V. L. Dowdell. Carbondale &
Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press.
-………… (1997), Lectures on Ethics. Translated by P.
heath. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-………… (1999), Correspondence. Translated by A.
Zweig. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-………… (2001), “On the Use of Teleological Principles
in Philosophy”. Translated by J. M. Mikkelsen. In R. Bernasconi
(ed). Race. Oxford: Blackwell.
-………… (2002), “On a Recently Prominent Tone of
Superiority in Philosophy”. Translated by P. Heath. In H.
Allison, & P. Heath (Eds.). Theoretical Philosophy after 1781.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-………… (2003), On Education. Translated by A.
churton. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
-Larrimore, M. (1999), Sublime Waste: Kant on the
Destiny of the Races. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 25.
-Lestition, S. O.(1985), Kant’s Philosophical
Anthropology: Texts and Historical Contexts, Continuity and
change. Ph. D. thesis: University of Chicago.
-Louden, R. (2000), Kant’s Impure Ethics: from Rational
Beings to Human Beings. New York & Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
-May, J. A. (1970), Kant’s Concept of Geography and Its
Relation to Recent Geographical Thought. Toronto: University
of Toronto Press.
-Wilson, H. l. (2006), Kant’s Pragmatic Anthropology: Its
Origin, Meaning, and Critical Significance. Albany: state
University of New York Press.
-Wood, A. (1999), Kant’s Ethical Thought. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
-Zammito, J. H. (2002), Kant, Herder, and the Birth of
Anthropology. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
CAPTCHA Image