The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش آموختۀ دکتری فلسفه غرب، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

سقراط در جست‌وجوی معرفتی است که ما را از فضیلت‌های اخلاقی آگاهی بخشد و در عمل نیز بدان فضیلت‌ها آراسته سازد. او با مبتنی ساختنِ اخلاق بر معرفت، فلسفه و راه زندگیِ خود را یگانه می‌سازد و به سنجه‌ای برای ارزیابیِ راه‌ورسمِ رایج در اخلاق و دین و سیاست و سخنوری دست می‌یابد تا به یاری آن کاستی‌های اخلاقی را در حوزه‌های مذکور بازشناسد. کژی‌ها و کاستی‌هایِ شایعی که او بر آنها خرده می‌گیرد و در بازاندیشی و اصلاحِ آنها می‌کوشد، عبارت‌اند از ترجیحِ ستم‌کردن بر ستم‌کشیدن؛ مقابله‌به‌مثل و انتقام‌جویی؛ ستیزه‌جویی و نیرنگ‌بازی در میان ایزدان؛ فریب‌کاری و سنگ‌دلیِ ایزدان درحق آدمیان؛ دادوستدِ ایزدان با آدمیان (بدین معنی که ایزدان در ازاءِ دریافتِ پیشکش از آدمیان، نیازهای آنان را برآورند)؛ روا شمردنِ بهره‌کشیِ زبردستان از فرودستان؛ و سرانجام، سخنوریِ اقناعی یا جلوه‌فروشانه و فریبنده.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Socrates the Moral Reformist

نویسنده [English]

  • Iman Shafi Beik

PhD of Philosophy, Shahid Beheshti University

چکیده [English]

Socrates is in search of a specific knowledge that by achieving it, one would both realize the moral virtues and practically become virtuous. Based on morality on knowledge, Socrates unifies his philosophy with his way of life, and discovers a criterion by which he could criticize the customary morality, religion, politics, and rhetoric of the Greeks, and expose their moral defects. The common defects that are the subjects of his moral examination and rectification include: the belief that committing injustice is better than suffering it; revenge and reciprocation (the lex talionis: a gift for a gift and an evil for an evil); popular piety based on the belief in the deceit and strife among gods, and deceitfulness and callousness of the gods towards human beings, and commercial transaction between gods and humankind (i.e. gods’ receiving sacrificial gifts from human beings in exchange for providing their needs); allowing the superordinate to exploit the subordinate; and lastly, the method of persuasive and deceitful rhetoric.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Socrates
  • reformism
  • Morality
  • knowledge
 
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