Kant and Demystification of Ethics and Religion

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

Associate Professor of Philosophy, Kharazmi University

چکیده

Kant's demystification is meant to put away any metaphysical and revealed elements from ethics and religion. Kant, fulfilling this, first argues that metaphysical questions of reason, from theoretical aspect, have no certain answers. In practical reason, he establishes his moral foundations, based on own human being without any referring to metaphysical bases. In fact, Kant places human being as the base, legislator and finally the end of ethics, so that the totality of morality is depended on itself him/her and there is no moral reality out of our humanly understanding. Kant, then, by confirming the necessity of rational religion, believes that the age of revealed religions have been expired, since they were belonged to the childhood age of human being’s reason, while in Kant’s rational religion, this is human being’s subjective intellect that defines the nature and function of God. Therefore, for Kant’s moral and rational religion, there is no credibility for affairs like miracles, blessings and prayers, since they indicate religious misguidance. In Kant’s rational pure religion, the religion is relied on human being’s pure reason in which his/her reason is the only criterion of religious beliefs. Therefore, for Kant, religion means recognizing our duties as divine judgments, and that such religion pertains to our mundane life not for worshiping God in order to get his satisfaction or benefitting his grace. In short, Kant’s religion and morality are totally depended on our humanly and earthy rationality and understanding, and that there is no mystery out of our humanly willing. So the mysteries that are claimed by revealed religions are meaningless, since our reason, itself, determines the nature, function and virtues of God, moral axioms and religious beliefs.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Kant and Demystification of Ethics and Religion

نویسنده [English]

  • Qodratullah Qorbani
Associate Professor of Philosophy, Kharazmi University
چکیده [English]

Kant's demystification is meant to put away any metaphysical and revealed elements from ethics and religion. Kant, fulfilling this, first argues that metaphysical questions of reason, from theoretical aspect, have no certain answers. In practical reason, he establishes his moral foundations, based on own human being without any referring to metaphysical bases. In fact, Kant places human being as the base, legislator and finally the end of ethics, so that the totality of morality is depended on itself him/her and there is no moral reality out of our humanly understanding. Kant, then, by confirming the necessity of rational religion, believes that the age of revealed religions have been expired, since they were belonged to the childhood age of human being’s reason, while in Kant’s rational religion, this is human being’s subjective intellect that defines the nature and function of God. Therefore, for Kant’s moral and rational religion, there is no credibility for affairs like miracles, blessings and prayers, since they indicate religious misguidance. In Kant’s rational pure religion, the religion is relied on human being’s pure reason in which his/her reason is the only criterion of religious beliefs. Therefore, for Kant, religion means recognizing our duties as divine judgments, and that such religion pertains to our mundane life not for worshiping God in order to get his satisfaction or benefitting his grace. In short, Kant’s religion and morality are totally depended on our humanly and earthy rationality and understanding, and that there is no mystery out of our humanly willing. So the mysteries that are claimed by revealed religions are meaningless, since our reason, itself, determines the nature, function and virtues of God, moral axioms and religious beliefs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ethics
  • religion
  • Demystification
  • modernism
  • Subjectivism
-          Ayer, A, J (1964), Language, Truth and Logic, London: Routldge .
-          Barth, Karl (1956), Church Dogmatics, edited by G. W. Bromily and T.F. Torrance, Vol. 1, Edinburg, Scotland.
-          Copleston, Fredrick (1977), History of Philosophy, London, Search Press.
-          Kant, Immanuel (1974), The Moral Law or Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Translated by H. J. Paton, London, William Brendan and Son, Ltd.
-          Kant, Immanuel (1998), Critique of Pure Reason, Translated and Edited by Paul Guyer & Allen W. Wood, Cambridge University Press.
-          Kant, Immanuel (2009), Religion Within the Bounds of Bare Reason, Translated by Warner, S, Pluhar, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc, Cambridge.
-          Kierkegaard, Sorren (2006), Fear and Trembling, Cambridge University Press.
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