The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه فلسفه، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه فلسفه، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.22034/jpiut.2020.38790.2519

چکیده

سوبژکتیویته عبارت است از اصالت من انسان در قلمروهای معرفت شناسی، جهان شناسی، اخلاق، زیبا شناسی، هنر، دین و علم. شکاکیت عمومی دکارت اورا به سوبژکتیویته رهنمون شد، زیرا او بعد از شک در همه چیز، وجود خود را به صورت اولین و تنها موجود یقینی یافت و بر همین پایه، قضیۀ« می اندیشم پس هستم» را شالوده هر نوع شناختی و هرگونه موجودی در عالم، از جمله وجود خداوند و اشیای جسمانی، قرار داد. دکارت عقل آدمی را در مسئله شناخت،بی نیاز از غیر خود دانست و در این راستا برای شکل دادن به ساختمان علم، فقط به سراغ مفاهیم فطری ذهنی می رود، مفاهیمی که تنها با قاعده ی وضوح و تمایز، که خود برگرفته از ذهن آدمی است، می توان بدانها دست یافت.اصالت سوژه (من انسان)، تمام بخش­های فلسفه دکارت را دربرگرفته و در این فلسفه تمام جهان، به صورت مجموعه­ای از ابژه ها، خودنمایی می­کند و عالم جز تصویری که آدمی از آن ساخته است، حقیقت دیگری ندارد. بنابراین، یگانه سوژه  حقیقی، چیزی نیست جز من انسانی و لذا گستره سوبژکتیویته در فلسفه دکارت کاملاً مشهود است. فلسفه دکارت با چنین نگاه سوبژکتیوی فلسفه جدید غرب را به مسیری نو انداخت. از این رو دوران جدید را، دوران سوبژ کتیویسم نامیده­اند.

تازه های تحقیق

Introduction

Descartes declared "Cogito" to be the unshakable foundation of existence. In his philosophical system, all beings are subject to the subject (human self), and human thought has a consolidating role in the whole universe because, with the principle of thinking substance or 'I', it can prove that God and the world there are. Descartes considered "thought" to have a very broad meaning, which is different from its current common meaning. He means the thought of all that passes through us, and we immediately perceive their existence in ourselves. Doubt, understanding, wanting, imagining, feeling, love, and affection are all examples of thought. Therefore, Reason is accepted in Descartes' philosophy as a reliable tool for acquiring knowledge. Descartes believes that everyone has the minimum necessary intellect and understanding to know the facts.

 

His methodology

 

Here we see another aspect of subjectivity in Descartes' philosophy, because in his first step, his methodology, he introduces reason as a reliable source of human knowledge. Descartes' subjectivity also has a strong and decisive presence in the mental actions of intuition and induction. This french philosopher defined intuition in a completely subjective way because he sees intuition as a knowledge that emerges in a clear, transparent, and meticulous mind. This knowledge is the direct and immediate function of the mind itself, and according to Descartes, it ultimately arises from the light of pure reason.

 

Principle of clarity and distinction

 

The rule of clarity and distinction, on the other hand, shows the subjectivity of Descartes's method, because, in this rule, the Cogito is the criterion for recognizing and determining clarity and distinction. Everything that I find clear and distinct is valid and certain, and if I do not find it clear and distinct, it is invalid. Therefore, the only criterion for what is clear and distinct and what is lacking in these two features is the subject. Descartes's philosophy, and in particular his epistemology, is based on the mind. It begins with the mind and continues with the mind, and ends with the human mind. And this is the culmination of the broad scope of Subjectivism in René Descartes's philosophy, and our goal was to emphasize the breadth of Subjectivism.

 

Subjectivity in Descartes' theology

 

In the third meditation, Descartes wants to look deeper and know him better to know God through this. His reflections teach that it is enough for us to reach God. By returning to ourselves and ignoring others, we can prove the existence of God. Descartes begins with the arguments for God. The starting point and a certain thing are my existence. He first considers my existence to be certain and proven, and according to it, he continues the next stages of the argument until he reaches the desired result, that is, to reach God. Therefore, the basis and foundation for proving the existence of God is the existence of man himself. Descartes also argues for proving the attributes of God by prioritizing the subject, because he derives these attributes from the mental concept he has of God, that is, the very concept of the perfect being. For Descartes, thinking is an attribute of mind, the extension is an attribute of the body, and God's attributes include absolute infinitude, necessary existence, immutability, eternality, omniscience, omnipotence, and benevolence.

Result

 

The study of Descartes' philosophy leads to the fact that subjectivity is evident in all his various subjects and topics. This presence is such that the subject is always the foundation so that if we take the subject out of Descartes 'philosophy, Descartes' building and the philosophical system will collapse. In this philosophy of mine, man is always regarded as a source of boiling, from which everything must begin. From Descartes' skepticism, nothing but subjectivity was achieved.

 

References

 

-         Descartes, René. (1981)Meditations on First Philosophy. Persian translation by Ahmad Ahmadi. Tehran: University Publishing Center. {In Persian}

-         Descartes, René. 1376. Discourse on the Method,. Persian translation by Manouchehr Sanei Darreh Bidi. Tehran: Al-Huda International Publications. {In Persian}

-         Descartes, René. 1997. Principles of Philosophy. Persian translation by Manouchehr Sanei Darreh Bidi. Tehran: Al-Huda International Publications. {In Persian}

-         Esfandiari, Simin (2009) “Cartesian Subjectivism: Departure of Philosophers in the Modern Age” journal of Wisdom and philosophy volume 5, Issue 17 Spring 2009, Pages 113-128.{In Persian} http://wph.atu.ac.ir/article_5771.html

-         Benefactor, Mohammad Ibrahim(2003) “Descartes and the Human Self”. Journal of Marefat. No. 9. 2001, .{In Persian}https://hawzah.net/fa/article/view/89117

-         Hegel, G. W. F. 1999. Lectures on History of Philosophy. Trans: Haldane and Simson. Cambridge University Press. Vol3.

-         Husserl, Edmund (2013)Cartesian meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology. Persian translation by Abdolkarim Rashidian. Tehran: Publishing. {In Persian}

-         Makie, Peter (1992)The Cogito and its importance. In John Cottingham (Ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, New York: Cambridge University Press.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

the Subjectivity in Descartes philosophy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Allahyar Rahmati 1
  • Parviz Ziashahabi 2
  • Reza Davari Ardakani 3

1 PH.D. student of philosophy at Science And Research Branch, Islamic Azad University ,Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor at Department Of philosophy, Science And Research Branch, Islamic Azad University ,Tehran, Iran

3 Professor at Department Of philosophy, Science And Research Branch, Islamic Azad University ,Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

We want to study the expansion of subjectivity in Descartes' philosophy, so we all know that subjectivity is the foundation of the human self in the realms of epistemology, cosmology, ethics, art, religion, and science. This article shows that Descartes's general skepticism led him to subjectivity because after he doubted everything, he found himself as the first and only certain being, and then he considered the principle of "I think, therefore I am" (Cogito) as the foundation of cognition and every being in the world, including the being of God and corporal substances. Descartes considered the human reason to be independent of everything other than reason itself respecting the matter (problem) of cognition, and, in this direction, he resorts to the mental innate concepts to shape the scientific construction itself. Subjectivity (the human self) embraces all aspects of Descartes' philosophy, and in this philosophy, the whole world appears as a set of objects, and the universe (cosmos) has no other truth than the image that the human being made from it. Therefore, the only real subject is nothing but the human self. Descartes' subjectivity changed the course of modern philosophy, and later philosophers philosophized in that direction. Descartes's philosophy, and in particular his epistemology, is based on the mind. It begins with the mind and continues with the mind, and ends with the human mind. And this is the culmination of the broad scope of subjectivism in René Descartes's philosophy, and our goal was to emphasize the breadth of subjectivism

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • subjectivity
  • Subject
  • object
  • Descartes
  • the human self
-       Davari  Ardakani, Reza. (1980). What is philosophy? Tehran: Publications of the Islamic Association of Iranian Wisdom and Philosophy.{In Persian}
-        Beheshti, Mohammad Reza. 2006. The Beginnings of Subjectivism in Philosophy and Art. Journal of Philosophy. (University of Tehran) No. 11.{In Persian} https://jop.ut.ac.ir/volume_1134.html
-        Copleston, Frederick(2001)History of Philosophy from Descartes to Leibniz. Vol 4. Persian translation by Gholamreza Avani. Tehran: Soroush and scientific and cultural. {In Persian}
-        Descartes, René(1997)Passions. Persian translation by Manouchehr Sanei Darreh Bidi. Tehran: Al-Huda International Publications. {In Persian}
-        Descartes, René. (1981)Meditations on First Philosophy. Persian translation by Ahmad Ahmadi. Tehran: University Publishing Center. {In Persian}
-        Descartes, René. 1376. Discourse on the Method,. Persian translation by Manouchehr Sanei Darreh Bidi. Tehran: Al-Huda International Publications. {In Persian}
-        Descartes, René. 1997. Principles of Philosophy. Persian translation by Manouchehr Sanei Darreh Bidi. Tehran: Al-Huda International Publications. {In Persian}
-        Esfandiari, Simin(2009) “Cartesian Subjectivism: Departure of Philosophers in the Modern Age”journal of Wisdom and philosophyVolume 5, Issue 17 Spring 2009, Pages 113-128.{In Persian}http://wph.atu.ac.ir/article_5771.html
Benefactor, Mohammad Ibrahim(2003) “Descartes and the Human Self”.  Journal of Marefat. No. 9. 2001, .{In Persian}https://hawzah.net/fa/article/view/89117
-        Hegel, G. W. F. 1999. Lectures on History of Philosophy. Trans: Haldane and Simson.Cambridge University Press. Vol3.
-        Heidegger, Martin (1392) Basic Problems of Phenomenology. Persian translation by Parviz Zia Shahabi. Tehran: Minavi Kherad.
-        Husserl, Edmund (2013)Cartesian meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology. Persian translation by Abdolkarim Rashidian. Tehran: Publishing.{In Persian}
-        Makie, Peter (1992)The Cogito and its importance. In John Cottingham (Ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pages 261-286,{In Persian}
-        Pazouki, Shahram (2000) “Descartes and Modernity” at Journal of Philosophy No.1. (University of Tehran).{In Persian}
-        Rahmati, Hossein Ali  (2009)“Descartes and the Inverted Ladder: Dialogues between Descartes’ Philosophy and the Renaissance Humanism Eleventh year”. University of Qom, Journal of Philosophical Theological Research, Volume 11, Issue 1 - Serial Number 41 Autumn 2009
-        Sanei Darreh Bidi, Manouchehr(1997)Descartes's Philosophy. Tehran: Al-Huda International Publications.{In Persian}
Soleimani Amoli, Hossein (2010). Comparative Philosophy and Philosophical Compliance. Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publications. {In Persian}
-        Taylor, Charles (1989) Sources of self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
-        Wilson, Margaret, D. (1969) Descartes. New York: Meridian.
Zia Shahabi, Parviz. (2012) A phenomenological introduction to Descartes' philosophy. Tehran: Hermes. {In Persian}
CAPTCHA Image