Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکترای فلسفه، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

10.22034/jpiut.2020.37889.2497

چکیده

هگل در کتاب پدیدارشناسی روح ساختار دیالکتیکی تاریخ آگاهی انسان اروپایی را به تصویر کشیده است. او در تمام گذارهای آگاهی به برآیند‌های مختلف، ضرورت و نسبتی دیالکتیکی تشخیص داده است و آن را در تمامی ساحات تاریخ و ساحات اندیشه در جریان‌های مختلف دنبال می‌کند. در فصل روح با دو جریان بسیار مهم در تاریخ اجتماعی یعنی انقلاب فرانسه و در تاریخ اندیشه یعنی فلسفه اخلاق کانت مواجهیم که در طی دو بخش به‌طور متوالی ظاهر می‌شوند و گویی که هگل نسبتی تنگاتنگ بین حکومت ترورِ روبسپیر و فلسفه اخلاق کانتی یافته است. جایی که آزادی انتزاعی روبسپیر در جهت ایجاد آزادی مطلق در تحقق اراده‌ی جزئیِ عام یافته خود، هرگونه نهاد یا جزئیتی را به‌عنوان عامل اخلال تحقق آزادی اراده‌ی خویش نابود می‌سازد و دوره‌ای از استبداد و وحشت آغاز می‌کند. گویی که چنین ادعای اراده عامی که تحمل هیچ جزئیت و مخالفی را ندارد به استبداد درونی قانون کلی اخلاق کانتی (که تحقق آن یگانه راه دستیابی به آزادی است) در جهت نابودیِ طبیعت، امیال، آداب‌ و رسوم و نهادهای عینی و غیره تبدیل می‌شود و وحشت و اضطراب به دلیل تناقضات بی‌پایان ایجاد می‌کند و فرد اخلاقی همچون فرد انقلابی با رفع همه‌جانبه عینیت، درون اراده انتزاعی خود اسیر می‌شود که این امر به اعتقاد هگل تبعات خطرناکی خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Robespierre-Kant: A Study of the Relationship between Absolute Freedom and Terror and Kant's Philosophy of Ethics Based on the Hegel's Phenomenology of spirit

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohsen Bagherzadeh Meshkibaf

Ph.D. of Philosophy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

In Phenomenology of the Spirit, Hegel depicts the dialectical structure of the history of European human consciousness. In all the transitions of consciousness to different outcomes, he has recognized the necessity and dialectical relation and follows it in all fields of history and fields of thought in different currents. In the chapter on the spirit, we encounter two very important currents in social history, namely the French Revolution, and in the history of thought, that is, Kant's philosophy of morality, which appear in two consecutive sections. And it's as if Hegel found a close connection between Robespierre's assassination rule and Kantian philosophy of morality. Where Robespierre's abstract freedom, in order to create absolute freedom in the realization of his generalized partial will, destroys any institution or detail as a factor in disrupting the realization of his free will, and begins a period of tyranny and terror. It is as if such a claim of a common will that tolerates no detail or opposition becomes the internal tyranny of Kant's general moral law (the realization of which is the only way to attain freedom) in order to destroy nature, desires, customs and objective institutions, and so on. And it creates fear and anxiety due to endless contradictions, and the moral person, like the revolutionary person, is trapped within his abstract will by the complete elimination of objectivity, which, according to Hegel, will have dangerous consequences.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hegel
  • Kant
  • Robespierre
  • Terror
  • Ethics
  • Objectivity
  • Freedom
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