عنوان مقاله [English]
The origins of Vico's historical thought as a pioneer of historical thinkers are the critique of Cartesian method. Historical thinking considers the way of thinking to be influenced by temporal and historical conditions and considers the historical-being of any understanding, thinking and reasoning. In contrast, non-historical thinking believes in the similarity of reason in all circumstances, in other words, in a kind of rationality. Vico's critique of Cartesian thinking reflects this view. Vico criticizes Descartes' attempt to ensure that all sciences are based on the criterion of clarity and distinction, and argues that this clarity and distinction cannot be achieved in the humanities, including history. Unlike Descartes, Vico believes in the constant evolution of human nature and, consequently, her thinking and reasoning throughout history, and considers this evolution based on different periods of history and their corresponding forms. Vico considers the result of the Cartesian method, which is based on analysis and separation, to be the separation of man from history and society. For Vico, true knowledge of anything is knowledge through causes, or in other words, historical knowledge about it. Although Vico considers history to be man-made, its guide introduces it as divine providence. In this article, we have tried to gain a better understanding of both the nature of historical thought and the essentialist and non-historical thinking by comparing Vico's historical thought with Cartesian essentialist thought and her mathematical thinking.