The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی


استادیار گروه فلسفه، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران. ایران.



استفن لیمن مدعی است؛ 1- در موقعیت­های واقعی شخص از قوی­ترین دلایل برای انجام وظیفه اخلاقی برخوردار است. 2- اگر خدا و زندگی پس از مرگ نباشد، موقعیت­هایی وجود خواهد داشت که اخلاقی بودن در آنها مستلزم آن است که شخص دست به فداکاری­های بزرگ بزند، به نحوی که در قیاس با آنچه می­کند از فواید کمتری بهره­مند شود. و 3- در شرایط 2 شخص از قوی­ترین دلایل برای انجام وظیفه اخلاقی برخوردار نیست. لیمن مدعی است این سه گزاره در خصوص هنجارهای اخلاقی قابل دفاع­اند و بی­آنکه وجود خداوند را پیشاپیش مفروض گرفته باشند، به غلبۀ خداباوری در برابر طبیعت باوری می­انجامند. در این مقاله، مدعیات اصلی استدلال او ذیل دو آموزۀ دلیل و آموزۀ شرطی بررسی شده است (این تقسیم­بندی از خود اوست). به نظر می­رسد لیمن در دفاع از آموزۀ دلیل مشکل زیادی نداشته باشد ولی آموزۀ شرطی با نقدهایی روبروست که درستی استدلال او را به چالش می­کشد..


عنوان مقاله [English]

C. Stephen Layman’s Moral Argument

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahram Alizadeh

Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Kharazmi University, Tehran. Iran.

چکیده [English]

C. Stephen Layman has argued that (1) In every actual case one has most reason to do what is morally required. (2) If there is no God and no life after death, then there are cases in which morality requires that one make a great sacrifice that confers relatively modest benefits. (3) If (2), then one does not have most reason to do what is morally required. According to Layman, these three non–question-begging theses about the moral order are defensible, and that they support theism over naturalism (given that the naturalism accepts that morality is always overriding).In this paper, the central claims of his argument are examined under the following two thesis (As he himself has offered this division); the Reasons Thesis and the Conditional Thesis. Layman does not seem to have much trouble defending the Reasons Thesis, but the Conditional Thesis has problems that challenge the correctness of his argument.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Moral Argument
  • Moral Reason
  • God
  • Life after Death
  • Kant
  • Layman
-   Byrne, P. (2004) The Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. In Unknown Publisher.
-   Byrne, P. (2006) “God and the Moral Order: A Reply to Layman”, Faith and Philosophy, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 2001 - 2008.
-   Byrne, P. (2007) Kant on God. Aldershot: Ashgate.
-   Evans, C. Stephen (2018) “Moral Arguments for the Existence of God”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <>.
-   Foot, Philippa (1978) “Are Moral Considerations Overriding?” in P. Foot Virtues and Vices (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press), 181-88.
-   Foot, Philippa (1978) “Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives” in Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy (Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press), 157-173.
-   Green, Roland (1978) Religious Reason (New York: Oxford University Press).
-   Hare, R. M. (1981) Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
-   Hasker, William and Charles Taliaferro (2019) “Afterlife”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL= <>.
-   Kant, I. (1788) Critique of Practical Reason, Mary J. Gregor (trans.), in PP: 139–271. [AK 5:3–163]
-   Kant, I. (1964) [1785] Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, trans H. J. Paton, New York: Harper and Row.
-   Kant, I. (1965) [1781, 1787] Critique of Pure Reason, trans. Norman Kemp Smith, New York: Macmillan.
-   Kohlberg, Lawrence (1981) Essays on Moral Development. Vol. 1. The Philosophy of Moral Development, Harper & Row, San Francisco, CA.
-   Layman, C. Stephen (2002) “God and the Moral Order,” Faith and Philosophy, Vol. 19, 304–16.
-   Layman, C. Stephen (2006) “God and the Moral Order: Replies to Objections”, Faith and Philosophy: Journal of the Society of Christian Philosophers: Vol. 23: Issue. 2.
-   Pasternack, Lawrence and Courtney Fugate (2020) “Kant’s Philosophy of Religion”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2020 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <>.
-   Swinburne, Richard (1989) Responsibility and Atonement (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
-   Taylor, Richard (1989) “Value and the Origin of Right and Wrong” in Louis Pojman, ed., Ethical Theory: Classical and Contemporary Readings (Belmont, California: Wadsworth), 115 – 121.
-   Wedgwood, Ralph (2004) “The Metaethicists' Mistake” forthcoming, Philosophical Perspectives 18.