The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فلسفه، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران. ایران.

10.22034/jpiut.2020.42353.2688

چکیده

استفن لیمن مدعی است؛ 1- در موقعیت­های واقعی شخص از قوی­ترین دلایل برای انجام وظیفه اخلاقی برخوردار است. 2- اگر خدا و زندگی پس از مرگ نباشد، موقعیت­هایی وجود خواهد داشت که اخلاقی بودن در آنها مستلزم آن است که شخص دست به فداکاری­های بزرگ بزند، به نحوی که در قیاس با آنچه می­کند از فواید کمتری بهره­مند شود. و 3- در شرایط 2 شخص از قوی­ترین دلایل برای انجام وظیفه اخلاقی برخوردار نیست. لیمن مدعی است این سه گزاره در خصوص هنجارهای اخلاقی قابل دفاع­اند و بی­آنکه وجود خداوند را پیشاپیش مفروض گرفته باشند، به غلبۀ خداباوری در برابر طبیعت باوری می­انجامند. در این مقاله، مدعیات اصلی استدلال او ذیل دو آموزۀ دلیل و آموزۀ شرطی بررسی شده است (این تقسیم­بندی از خود اوست). به نظر می­رسد لیمن در دفاع از آموزۀ دلیل مشکل زیادی نداشته باشد ولی آموزۀ شرطی با نقدهایی روبروست که درستی استدلال او را به چالش می­کشد..

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

C. Stephen Layman’s Moral Argument

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahram Alizadeh

Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Kharazmi University, Tehran. Iran.

چکیده [English]

C. Stephen Layman has argued that (1) In every actual case one has most reason to do what is morally required. (2) If there is no God and no life after death, then there are cases in which morality requires that one make a great sacrifice that confers relatively modest benefits. (3) If (2), then one does not have most reason to do what is morally required. According to Layman, these three non–question-begging theses about the moral order are defensible, and that they support theism over naturalism (given that the naturalism accepts that morality is always overriding).In this paper, the central claims of his argument are examined under the following two thesis (As he himself has offered this division); the Reasons Thesis and the Conditional Thesis. Layman does not seem to have much trouble defending the Reasons Thesis, but the Conditional Thesis has problems that challenge the correctness of his argument.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Moral Argument
  • Moral Reason
  • God
  • Life after Death
  • Kant
  • Layman
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