The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی


پژوهشگر فرادکتری فلسفه، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران



فوکو و لویناس از برجسته‌ترین و مهم‌ترین متفکرانی هستند که بر ضرورت انتقاد بنیادی از سوبژکتیویسم عقلانی تأکید کرده‌اند. جریانی که به زعم این دو متفکر از زمان دکارت تا عصر حاضر، توانایی اخلاقی بدن را به نفع آگاهی سرکوب کرده است. فوکو و لویناس به بررسی و تحلیل معیار اخلاقی سوژة بدن‌مند پرداخته‌ و در همین راستا توصیف اساسی و بدیعی از بدن و اخلاق ارائه کرده‌اند. بر همین اساس پیوند سوژه و دیگری را از منظری نو واسازی کرده‌اند. پرسش‌های راهبر ما در ‌این مقاله عبارتند از: لویناس و فوکو چگونه بر پایة مختصات اندیشه-شان، سوبژکتیوتة بدن‌مند اخلاقی را ترسیم کرده‌اند؟ وجوه اشتراک و اختلاف این دو در باب سوبژکتیوتة بدن‌مند اخلاقی چیست؟ مدعای اصلی مقاله این است که اگرچه فوکو و لویناس روش‌ها و دریافت‌های متفاوتی از اخلاقی بودن ارائه کرده‌اند، اما هر دو بر اهمیت بدن به عنوان شرط ضروری و ذاتی بازسازی سوبژکتیوته اخلاقی تأکید دارند. هر دومعنای خاصی از اخلاق ارائه کرده‌اند و به نقد نظریه‌های مربوط به عمل اخلاقی و مجموعة قوانین کلی پرداخته‌اند. همچنین با تأکید بر اهمیت توانایی اخلاقی زبان، به تبیین رابطة اساسی بین سوژه و دیگری پرداخته‌اند و با انتقادهای جدی به زبان سوبژکتیوسم عقلانی به تولد سوژة حقیقت‌گو و سوژة پاسخ‌گو همت گماشته‌اند. به‌طور کلی سوژه بدن‌مند اخلاقی فوکو و لویناس دارای جنبه‌های مشترک اخلاقی، جسمانی، زبانی، زیبایی‌شناختی و تاریخی است.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ethical Embodied Subject: Foucault and Levinas

نویسنده [English]

  • Bayan Karimi

Postdoctoral Researcher in Philosophy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz. Iran

چکیده [English]

Foucault and Levinas are one of the most prominent and important thinkers who have put emphasis on the necessity of the fundamental critique of rational subjectivity. This is an approach that according to these two thinkers since the time of Descartes up to this day has suppressed the ethical capability of body in the interest of consciousness. Foucault and Levinas have studied and analyzed the ethical criterion of the embodied subject and in this respect, they have presented the fundamental and creative description of body and ethics. Accordingly, they have deconstructed the link between the subject and the other from a new perspective. Our main question in the paper is that how have Foucault and Levinas delineated the ethical embodied subjectivity on the base of the features of their intellectual system? What are their differences and similarities on the ethical embodied subjectivity?  The main claim of the paper is that although Foucault and Levinas have presented different methods and understandings on being ethical, but both of them emphasize on the necessity of body as the essential condition to reconstruct ethical subjectivity.  Both have provided specific meanings of ethics and have criticized theories of ethical practice and the set of general laws.  They have also emphasized the importance of the ethical capability of language to explain the essential relationship between subject and the other. By raising serious criticisms of the language of rational subjectivism they have given rise to the truth telling and responsive subject. In general, Foucault and Levine’s ethical embodied subject has common ethical, physical, linguistic, aesthetic, and historical aspects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foucault
  • Levinas
  • Ethical Embodied Subject
  • the Other
  • language
  • ethics
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