مسأله استقرا نزد هیوم

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی (ره). قزوین. ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه فلسفه، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی (ره). قزوین. ایران

10.22034/jpiut.2020.40138.2581

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی ‌‌‌راه‌حل هیوم برای مسأله استقراست. اینکه آیا می‌توان با مشاهده چند نمونه جزئی درباره موارد مشابه مشاهده نشده حکم صادر کرد، مسأله‌‌ای است که همچنان یکی از بحث‌‌‌های داغ محافل فلسفی است. هیوم هرچند در آثارش مستقیماً به این مسأله اشاره نکرده ولی در خلال بحث از علیت به این پرسش پاسخ داده است. هیوم منشأ صدور حکم کلی با استناد به نمونه‌های جزئی را در روان آدمی می‌داند. روان آدمی به گونه‌ای است که پس از مشاهده مکرر همبودی اشیاء در گذشته، این انتظار در او شکل می‌گیرد که در آینده نیز چنین تکراری را مشاهده کند تا اینجا را تمامی مفسرین هیوم قبول دارند اما اینکه آیا هیوم فراتر از این هم نظری در مورد علیت دارد یا نه موجب بروز اختلاف بین مفسرین شده است. در این مقاله در ابتدا گزارش وفادار به متنی از علیت و به تبع آن مسأله استقرا نزد هیوم ارائه شده و در ادامه به اختصار تفاسیر متفاوتی که از علیت هیوم مطرح شده، آمده است و در آخر هر یک از این تفاسیر به اجمال بررسی شده و اشکالات هر یک به اختصار بیان شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Hume and the Problem of Induction

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra Esmaeili 1
  • Mohammad Hakkak 2
1 PhD Candidate of Philosophy, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin. Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Philosophy, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin. Iran.
چکیده [English]

The scope of this research is the study of Hume's solution for the problem of induction. The philosophers still wonder whether they could determine unobserved instances based upon similar observed ones. However, Hume didn't employ this problem directly in his books but he answered this question within the discussion of causation. According to Hume's point-of-view, the source of universals that is based on particles; is in the human spirit. The nature of human spirit, after frequently observation of successions in the past, expects to observe same succession in future. All Hume interpreters agree on everything said. But they have different opinions on whether Hume had any further theory about causation. In this paper, first a faithful to context report about causation and accordingly Induction Problem with Hume is presented and then different interpretations on Hume's causation are introduced briefly and finally each interpretation is discussed thoroughly citing its shortcomings briefly.  

In this paper, first a faithful to context report about causation and accordingly Induction Problem with Hume is presented and then different interpretations oh Hume's causation are introduced briefly and finally each interpretation is discussed thoroughly citing its shortcomings briefly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hume
  • the problem of induction
  • Causality
  • causal reductionism
  • Causal Realism
  • Causal Skepticism
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