The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

سردبیر مجله انستیتو سیاست ایران، http://systinstitute.com

10.22034/jpiut.2021.43480.2741

چکیده

چگونگی ارتباط اخلاق و جامعه، همواره یکی از مهم‌ترین پرسش‌های پیش‌رویِ اندیشمندان اجتماعی و فلاسفه بوده است. در آغاز دورۀ موسوم به روشنگری، اخلاقِ غایت‌مدار که دستاورد فلاسفۀ یونان باستان از جمله ارسطو بود، به حاشیه رانده شد و عقل خودبنیاد، در کانون همۀ داوری‌های اجتماعی قرار گرفت. در واکنش به چنین وضعیتی، جماعت‌گرایان با نقد ارزش‌زدایی از فلسفه در عصر مدرن، مکانیزمی برای ایجاد ساختار اخلاقی پیشنهاد دادند که با توسل به سنت ارسطوئی قابل تحقق است. مک‌اینتایر، به‌عنوان‌ یکی از مهمترین اندیشمندان در نحلۀ جماعت‌گرایان، با تاکید بر سنت اخلاقی ارسطوئی معتقد است فرد جدا از سنت، تاریخ و ظرف جامعه نمی‌تواند خردمند تعریف شود و تنها می‌بایست بستر لازم را برای سعادت جامعه از طریق گسترش "فن اخلاقی زیستن" فراهم نمود. برهمین اساس پرسش مدنظر این پژوهش، بر چیستی رابطه جامعه و اخلاق در سنت فلسفی اندیشه غربی ازنظر جماعت‌گرایان و همچنین چگونگیِ ارائۀ پاسخ مک‌اینتایر ساخت یافته است. به نظر می‌رسد مک‌اینتایر با نقد تفکر مدرن به مسئله عقل و ارزش‌های اخلاقی در جامعه از منظر رویکردهای فلسفی غرب پرداخته و مکانیزم ایجاد ساختار اخلاقی را با ایدۀ "گزینش بهترین معیارها " و "فن اخلاقی زیستن" موردتوجه قرار داده است. این پژوهش با استفاده از روش توصیفی-هنجاری با درنظرگرفتن انتقادهای مطرح‌شده از سوی جماعت‌گرایان در رابطه با گسست رابطۀ اخلاق و جامعه، می‌کوشد تا به پیشنهادهای مک‌اینتایر برای تحقق ساخت یک جامعۀ اخلاقی در درون فرهنگ غربی بپردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Communitarian Critique of the Moral Crisis of Modernity: a study of how moral society is built in McIntyre thought

نویسنده [English]

  • Hojat Ghalandari

Editor of Institute Site Iran magazine, http://systinstitute.com

چکیده [English]

How ethics and society relate to each other has always been one of the most important questions for social thinkers and philosophers. At the beginning of the so-called Enlightenment, Teleological ethics, the work of ancient Greek philosophers, including Aristotle, was marginalized, and self-founded reason became the center of all social judgment. In response to such a situation, the communitarianism criticized the devaluation of philosophy in the modern age, proposing a mechanism for creating a moral structure that could be achieved by resorting to the Aristotelian tradition. McIntyre, as one of the most important thinkers in the communitarian movement, emphasizes the Aristotelian moral tradition and believes that a person apart from tradition, history and society cannot be defined as wise and should only provide the necessary basis for society's goodness through spreading "The moral technicality of living". Accordingly, the question under consideration of this study is based on what is the relationship between society and ethics in the philosophical tradition of Western thought from the point of view of communitarianism and also how McIntyre's answer is presented. By criticizing modern thought, McIntyre seems to have addressed the issue of reason and moral values ​​in society from the perspective of Western philosophical approaches and the mechanism of creating a moral structure with the idea of ​​"choosing the best criteria" and "the moral technicality of living". Using a descriptive-normative approach, this study tries to address McIntyre's suggestions for building a moral society within Western culture, taking into account the criticisms made by communitarianisms regarding the rupture of the relationship between morality and society.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tradition
  • Moral Society
  • McIntyre
  • reason
  • Modernity
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