Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکتری فلسفه دین، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22034/jpiut.2021.46364.2867

چکیده

در این مقاله پس از تبیین محتوای نظریه تکامل از زمان داروین تا شکل‌گیری سنتز مدرن یا نئوداروینیسم به ابعاد و دلالت‌های فلسفی-الهیاتی آن پرداخته می‌شود. به طور ویژه خوانش نئوداروینیستی از تکامل برای بسیاری از نئوداروینیست‌ها بستری برای پیشبرد اید‌‌‌ه طبیعت‌گرایی است، اما نکته اساسی در دفاع نئوداروینیست‌ها از طبیعت‌گرایی، تاکید ایشان بر تبعیت از شواهد تجربی برای شکل‌دهی هستی‌شناسی و جهان‌بینی خویش است. در ادامه رویکرد دوم به تکامل، یعنی طراحی هوشمند تبیین می‌شود که اگرچه عموما ایشان را با ضدیت با تکامل به معنای نیای مشترک معرفی می‌کنند، اما ایده محوری این جریان اصل نیاز به طراحی در فرآیند تکامل است و ایشان لزوما پیدایش موجودات از نیای مشترک را منکر نیستند. اما جریان غالب نئوداروینیستی به دلیل آنکه معتقد است جریان طراحی هوشمند از روش علمی تخطی کرده و پای عوامل فراطبیعی مانند خداوند را در بستر علم طرح می‌کند آن را غیر علمی دانسته و معتقد به حذف آن از فضای علمی است. رویکرد مهم دیگر به تکامل، جریان سومی است که در ادامه مقاله تبیین می‌شود. این جریان مخالف طراحی هوشمند است اما بر اساس شواهد زیست‌شناختی جدید نقدهای مهمی بر خوانش نئوداروینیستی از تکامل دارد. با این حال به نظر می‌رسد، جریان نئوداروینیسم با وجود ابتناء کامل این جریان بر شواهد تجربی به دلیل تعهد پیشینی به طبیعت‌گرایی با آن مخالت می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Neo-Darwinism; Naturalism against Empirical Evidence

نویسنده [English]

  • Nima Narimani

PhD in Philosophy of Religion, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

In this article, after describing the content of the theory of Evolution from Darwin to the formation of modern synthesis or Neo-Darwinism, its theological implications are discussed. In particular, the Neo-Darwinian reading of Evolution is a ground for many Neo-Darwinists to advance the idea of naturalism. A critical aspect in the Neo-Darwinists defense of naturalism is their emphasis on following empirical evidence to shape their worldview. The second approach to Evolution is Intelligent Design. Although they are generally be presented as opposed to Evolution in the sense of a common ancestor, the central idea of this movement is the need for design in the process of Evolution, and they don't necessarily deny the Evolution from a common ancestor. Nevertheless, Neo-Darwinists often accuse the Intelligent Design movement of being unscientific and having religious motives. As a result, despite the scientific efforts of the Intelligent Design movement, there is no positive view of it in academia. But another interesting approach to Evolution is the third-way or post-Darwinian Evolution. It is opposed to intelligent design, but it has crucial criticisms of the Neo-Darwinian Evolution reading based on new biological evidence. But Neo-Darwinists confrontation with this evidence does not seem to be consistent with their claim to follow empirical evidence.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neo-Darwinism
  • Naturalism
  • Reductionism
  • Teleology
  • Post-Darwinian Evolution
  • Intelligent Design
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