The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فلسفه، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران.

10.22034/jpiut.2021.42609.2702

چکیده

چرا «دمکراسی»، چونان مفهومی فلسفی، فقط در برخی از جوامع نهادینه می‌شود و در جوامع مختلف نمودهای مختلفی می‌یابد؟ چرا «دمکراسی» در برخی از جوامع «از پایین به بالا» و «شهرستان‌محور» است اما در برخی دیگر از جوامع «از بالا به پایین» و «پایتخت‌محور» است؟ «دمکراسی‌های شهرستان‌گرا» چه‌مزیت‌هایی و «دمکراسی‌های پایتخت‌گرا» چه‌معایبی دارند؟ این مقاله، با تحلیل تطبیقی این دو نوع دمکراسی براساس «فلسفه سیاست» ‌‌‌‌توکویل، در پی یافتن پاسخ این پرسش‌هاست. این مقاله، پس از واکاوی علل پیدایش این دو گونه متفاوت از دمکراسی، پیامدها، مزایا و معایب آنها را بررسی می‌کند و نشان می‌دهد دمکراسی، پیش و بیش از آنکه مفهومی سیاسی چونان شیوه‌ای از زمامداری باشد، مفهومی فرهنگی چونان شیوه‌ای از زندگی است و در فقدان «دمکراسی فرهنگی» و «فرهنگ و خلق‌وخوی دمکراتیک»، «دمکراسی سیاسی»، خود، به گونه جدیدی از «ستم‌گری» تبدیل می‌شود و «دمکراسی مرکزگرا»، که به شهرستان‌ها بی‌توجه است و فقط به پایتخت توجه می‌کند، با «روح فلسفی دمکراسی» ناسازگار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

‘Township democracy’: A comparative analysis of ‘township democracy’ and ‘centralist democracy’ in Tocqueville’s ‘political philosophy’

نویسنده [English]

  • SHIRZAD PEIK HERFEH

Assistant Prof. Department of philosophy, Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU), Qazvin, Iran

چکیده [English]

Why ‘democracy,’ as a philosophical concept, thrives in some societies and not in others, and it has different shapes in different societies? Why, in some societies, ‘democracy’ is ‘from bottom-up,’ and ‘township-based,’ but it is ‘top-down,’ and ‘centralist’ in some other societies? What are the merits and advantages of ‘township democracies’ and disadvantages of ‘centralist democracies?’ This paper tries to answer to these questions by a comparative analysis of these two democracies according to Tocqueville’s political philosophy. Having shown the causes of these two different kinds of democracy, it analyzes their consequences, advantages, and disadvantages and shows that democracy is more a cultural concept as a way of life than a political concept as a way of governing and without ‘cultural democracy’ and ‘democratic culture and mores,’ ‘political democracy’ will itself become a new kind of ‘tyranny’ and ‘centralist democracy’ that neglects the towns and only cares about the capital is incompatible with the ‘philosophical spirit of dempcracy.’

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Democracy
  • township
  • township democracy
  • civil society
  • Tocqueville
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