Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه فلسفه و کلام اسلامی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه فلسفه و کلام اسلامی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه معارف اسلامی، واحد اهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهر، ایران.

10.22034/jpiut.2021.46975.2904

چکیده

از دیرباز چگونگی آفرینش و به تبع آن، نظریۀ «خلق ‌از عدم» یکی از چالش‌های اساسی میان فیلسوفان و متکلمان اسلامی است. تفسیرها و تبیین‌های متعدد در این خصوص، بیشتر در شکل تقابل میان حدوث و قدم مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. اشاعره منشأ آفرینش را از عدم «خلق شیئ از لا شیئ» می‌دانند و معتقدند که حوادث قبل از حدوث نه از اشیاء هستند و نه از اعیان. در این نگرش، ابتدای آفرینش هیچ است و جهان هستی با اراده و قدرت مطلقه الهی، بدون واسطه از عدم پدید آمده است. پیدایش هستی مبتنی بر نظام طولی نیست؛ بلکه موجودات جهان با اراده الهی و به طور مستقل پدید آمده‌اند. اراده و قدرت او هرگونه ضرورت و واسطه را در خلقت نفی می‌کند. مخلوقات صدور و فیضان جبری از جانب الوهیت نیستند؛ بلکه ذاتاً به اراده آزاد و اختیار خالق وابسته‌اند. در مقابل، ملاصدرا معتقد به حدوث زمانی و حدوث ذاتی است و با تعدیل اصطلاح خلق از عدم، بر آفرینش، از «لا من شیء» استفاده کرده است. وی حدوث عالم و خلق از عدم را با براهین فلسفی اثبات کرده و بر اساس حرکت جوهری، عالم را حادث زمانی می‌داند. از نظر وی جهان ذاتا متجدد است و حدوث زمانی عالم به معنی خلق جهان «با زمان» است نه «در زمان».

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of the Theoretical Foundations of the Ash'arites and the Transcendent Wisdom about "Creation Ex nihilo"

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Vahabpour 1
  • Seyed Ebrahim Aghazadeh 2
  • Tavakkol Kouhi Giglou 3

1 PhD Candidate, Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tabriz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Islamic Education, Ahar Branch. Islamic Azad university , Ahar, Iran

چکیده [English]

How to create and consequently the creation theory of ex nihilio it has been one of the main challenges between Islamic philosophers and theologians. Numerous interpretations in this aspect, have been examined in the form of a confrontation between temporal and the eternal. The Ash'arites know the origin of creation from non-existence" create something out of nothing’’ and they believe that pre-occurrence events are neither objects nor essences. In this regard, the beginning of creation is nothing, and the world with the will and the absolute power of God, It is created without the mediation of non-existence. His will and power negate any necessity and intermediary in creation and the creatures are not effusion and coercive emanation by God; but essentially it depends on the free will and authority of the creator. Conversely, Mullah Sadra believes in the creation in time and essential origination. He used "not of anything" in creation. He proves and by modifying the term ex nihilio the occurrence of the world and the creation ex nihilio with philosophical arguments and raises a new perspective and based on the motion of the substance. The world is temporal generated. In his view the world is essentially renewing, and the creation in time of the universe the creation means of world "with time" not "in time".

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Creation Ex nihilio
  • Temporal
  • Eternal
  • of Nothing
  • Not of Anything
  • Quran
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