Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی


دانشیار گروه فلسفه علم و تکنولوژی، پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی، تهران، ایران.



با گذر از نیمه قرن بیستم میلادی وقایعی رخ داد و پدیده‌هایی برآمد که در مجموع آنها را «بحران پزشکی» خواندند. این بحران سبب شد فلسفه که از نیمۀ قرن نوزدهم از پزشکی منتزع شده بود مجالی برای حضور مجدد بیابد. فیلسوفان پزشکی، بحران را به فربه‌شدن وجوه علمی و تکنیکی و نحیف شدن جنبه‌های انسانی طبابت نسبت دادند. از همین رو، تأمل در باب اینکه پزشکی چیست و چگونه باید میان وجوه علمی-تکنیکی و انسانی آن توازن برقرار کرد به یکی از مسائل محوری فلسفۀ پزشکی بدل شد. سرشت پزشکی معمولاً در غالب دوگانۀ علم-هنر صورت‌بندی می‌شود. در این مقاله ابتدا این صورت‌بندی را تشریح می‌کنم و سپس نابسندگی آن را نشان خواهم داد. در پایان الگویی پیشنهاد می‌دهم که بتوان سرشت پزشکی را بیرون از دایرۀ دوگانۀ علم/هنر فهم کرد. در این الگو پزشکی پرکتیسی است علمی، مبتنی بر قضاوت، گفتگو، مفاهمه و استوار بر سامانی اجتماعی. این الگو با چالش‌های غایت‌شناختی، معرفت‌شناختی، علم‌شناختی، سیاست‌گذارانه و حرفه‌مندی روبروست که نیازمند تأملات جدی و پیوسته در سرشت پزشکی است.



عنوان مقاله [English]

On the Nature of Medicine: Necessities, Approaches, and Challenges

نویسنده [English]

  • Alireza Monajemi

Associate Professor, Philosophy of Science and Technology Department, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

After the middle of the twentieth century, symptoms gradually appeared which were collectively called the “crisis of medicine”. This crisis gave philosophy, which had been abstracted from medicine since the mid-nineteenth century, an opportunity to reflect. Medical philosophers attributed the crisis to the inflation of the scientific and technical aspects and, consequently, to the weakening of the human aspects of medicine. Therefore, reflection on the nature of medicine became one of the central issues of philosophy in medicine.
In this article, I will first highlight the need to study the nature of medicine, explain the various concpetions of the nature of modern medicine - based on the dichotomy- science vs. art , and show their inadequacy and inappropriatness. Finally, I will provide a model to the nature of medicine beyond the realm of science / art. In this model, medicine is a scientific practice, based on judgment, dialogue, communication and social order. This model faces teleological, epistemological, scientific, political, and professional challenges that require serious and continuous reflection on the nature of medicine.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nature of medicine"
  • Philosophy of medicine"
  • Art-Science dichotomy
  • practice"
  • "
  • Gadamer"
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