عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The relation between subject and object is the main concern for Jean-paul Sartre, especially in his Being and Nothingness. Thus, he first of all divides Being into two categories: 'being in itself' and 'being for others'. With regard to the latter, essence is preceded by being while with regard to the former, they are completely correlated with each other. Being in itself is devoted only to the states of Being and being for others only to the states of human being. In this regard, Sartre believes that there are a third alternative for Being which is included within the realm of being in itself. The characteristic of the third kind is that it is not neutral in relation with us, but it can look at us too, and delimit our freedom. Being for others is the manifestation of hostile relations among human beings.
The present paper tries to analyze the third kind, i. e. being for others. Sartre believes that the other's look denies our freedom. The relations among human beings are highlighted within three realms: the relation of child with his/her parents; the lovely relation based on sexual intercourse; the relation between man and God. Each of these three relations, for Sartre, is the manifestation of self-deception and condemned to defeat. But it must be noted that the being for others is not constrained to these three kinds but it is especially highlighted within three realms. With the account of these three self-defeating relations, we deal in our paper by focusing on Sartre Being and Nothingness.