Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فلسفه دین، دانشگاه ادیان و مذاهب، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از مهمترین چالش‌ها در بحث معنای زندگی، مسئله پوچی است. آیا زندگی بشر دارای بنیانی ارزشمند و هدفمند است یا چنین ویژگی‌ای در زندگی دست‌نیافتنی است؟ توماس نیگل یکی از متفکرانی است که با پاسخ منفی به این سوال از پوچ‌انگاری دفاع کرده است. در این مقاله ابتدا به دو استدلال نیگل پرداخته شده است: استدلال نخست با تکیه بر فاصله پرناشدنی جهان موجود و جهان مطلوب از پوچی دفاع می کند. استدلال دوم که نوآوری نیگل نیز محسوب می‌شود، زندگی را فاقد عقلانیت شمرده و در نتیجه،‌ زندگی را بی‌معنا می‌داند. به باور وی، عقلانیت بشر تنها از نظرگاهی بشری قابل دفاع است و انسان به مدد قدرت فراروی از خویشتن، در اعتبار عقلانیت خویش تردید می‌کند و ازین رو، ارزش‌های برخاسته از آن را نیز بی‌اعتبار می‌سازد. در ادامه مقاله به نقد دیدگاه نیگل می‌پردازد و اموری مانند «اعتبار عقلانیت بشر»، نقش «جدیت در معنای زندگی»، اعتبار«داوری شهود انسان‌ها درباره معنای زندگی» و نیز بازاندیشی در «فراروی انسان» را مطرح می‌کند. در نهایت، از نگاه نگارنده دلایل نیگل برای دفاع از پوچ‌انگاری کافی نیست و  نمی‌توان بر اساس آنها دست از معناداری زندگی شست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Critical Study of Thomas Nagel's View on Absurdity

نویسنده [English]

  • Vahid Sohrabifar

Assistant Professor of Philosophy of Religion Departement, University of Religions, Iran

چکیده [English]

This article aims to reassess the concepts of power, resistance, and subjectivity by examining the ideas of Hannah Arendt and Michel Foucault. At first glance, it seems that these two thinkers, rooted in different philosophical and theoretical foundations, are in opposition to each other, making a dialogue between their perspectives seemingly impossible. However, this article proposes an alternative approach by highlighting the common grounds and commonalities in their deconstruction of power. Moreover, it argues that their political views can be seen as aligned and complementary, leading to a deepening and development of each other's ideas and the creation of new political approaches. Thus, the central questions addressed in this article are: what forms of agency emerge for the contemporary subject as result of the deconstruction of power in thought of Arendt and Foucault? How does power act as a source of resistance while opening up new possibilities for the subject? The main finding of this study is that, in contrast to traditional and modern interpretations, power in the works of these thinkers is seen as a positive, creative, and productive concept. Based on this understanding, resistance and alternative forms of empowerment for the subject emerge. It should be noted, however, that Arendt’s and Foucault’s interpretation of resistance agency and power may differ due to the primacy of political and social issues in their respective theories.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • meaning of life
  • absurdity
  • Thomas Nagel
  • rationality
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