The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه دوشیشا کیوتو، ژاپن

چکیده

The philosophical investigations into universals was entangled with the combination of a certain Christian faith and Ontology, especially in ancient and medieval times. That is, God’s creative activity provided us with the ontological presumption which enabled universals to be predicated, be perceived and be thought about. Times then have changed, and “the modern turn” in Philosophy tends to resolve universals into concepts or linguistic phenomenon, which resulted that its certain Christian ontology no longer dominates the discourse on universals. On the contrary to this philosophical tendency, modern theological discussions try to learn the development of philosophical investigations into universals, and to tackle the theological problems provoked by the modern natural science. Especially Karl Barth’s use of Universals-theory would obtain the assessment of “revolution in content” in the Church history, which, in previous studies, was yet entangled with the ambiguous word “…in motion…” and with the unclear argument “…understand true human nature from the nature of this one particular man Jesus Christ…” The present article will attempt to clarify this Barth’s practical use of Universals-theory by referring to philosophical arguments, then proving Barth’s intention and the difficulty of his complicated argument that Jesus Christ was one exemplar and in the same time was also the model, which is inconsistent with the basis of Universals-theory. It resulted that this Barth’s attempt will provide us with the possibility today of Universals-theory especially in the field of Religion.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

On the Entanglement of Universals-Theory and Christian Faith in the Modern Theological Discourse of Karl Barth

نویسنده [English]

  • Hiroshi Tone

PhD Candidate, Faculty of Theology, Doshisha University, Kyoto, - Japan

چکیده [English]

The philosophical investigations into universals was entangled with the combination of a certain Christian faith and Ontology, especially in ancient and medieval times. That is, God’s creative activity provided us with the ontological presumption which enabled universals to be predicated, be perceived and be thought about. Times then have changed, and “the modern turn” in Philosophy tends to resolve universals into concepts or linguistic phenomenon, which resulted that its certain Christian ontology no longer dominates the discourse on universals. On the contrary to this philosophical tendency, modern theological discussions try to learn the development of philosophical investigations into universals, and to tackle the theological problems provoked by the modern natural science. Especially Karl Barth’s use of Universals-theory would obtain the assessment of “revolution in content” in the Church history, which, in previous studies, was yet entangled with the ambiguous word “…in motion…” and with the unclear argument “…understand true human nature from the nature of this one particular man Jesus Christ…” The present article will attempt to clarify this Barth’s practical use of Universals-theory by referring to philosophical arguments, then proving Barth’s intention and the difficulty of his complicated argument that Jesus Christ was one exemplar and in the same time was also the model, which is inconsistent with the basis of Universals-theory. It resulted that this Barth’s attempt will provide us with the possibility today of Universals-theory especially in the field of Religion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Universals
  • Ontology
  • Theology
  • Karl Barth
  • religion
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-         Barth, K. (1955). Die Kirchliche Dogmatik Ⅳ, 2. (Zürich: Theologischer Verlag).
-         Bella, S. D., & Schmalz, T. M. (2017). Introduction to Universals in Modern Philosophy. In Bella, S. D., & Schmalz, T. M (Eds.), The Problem of Universals in Early Modern Philosophy (pp. 1-12). (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
-         Bella, S. D., & Schmalz, T. M (Eds.). (2017). The Problem of Universals in Early Modern Philosophy. (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
-         Galluzzo, G., & Loux, M. J (Eds.). (2015). The Problem of Universals in Contemporary Philosophy. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
-         Kahn, C. (1973). The Verb ‘be’ in Ancient Greek. (Dordrecht: Reidel).
-         McCormack, B. (2004). Participation in God, Yes, Deification, No: Two Modern Protestant Responses to an Ancient Question. In Dalfterth, I. U., Fischer, J., & Grosshans, H-P (Eds.), Denkwürdiges Geheimnis: Beiträg Zur Gotteslehre. Festschrift Für Eberhard Jüngel Zum 70. Geburtstag (S. 347-374), (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck).
-         Moreland, J. P. (2005). Universals. (Chesham: Acumen).
-         Pelikan, J. (1989). Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700) (The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine; 5). (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
-         Strawson, P. F. (1965). Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. (London: Methuen).
-         Thompson, J. (1978). Christ in perspective: Christological Perspectives in the Theology of Karl Barth. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).
-        Wolterstorff, N. (1970). On Universals: An Essay in Ontology, (Chicago: Chicago University Press).
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