The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان

2 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان

چکیده

در تاریخ اندیشۀ هند، فلسفۀ چارواکه (لوکایاتا) تنها مکتبی است که با مبانی نظریِ ماتریالیستی، از رهگذرِ نفی ساحتِ ماوراء حسّ، یگانه واقعیت را ماده و تنها ادراک معتبر را ادراک حسّی می­داند. فلسفۀ اپیکوری، به­ویژه به دلیلِ بیان جهان­شناسی اتمیستی، ظاهراً شبیه­ترین مکتب فکری به چارواکه است. پژوهش پیش­رو به روش مقایسه­ای-تحلیلی و به­منظورِ نشان­دادن فراگیری اندیشه­های ماتریالیستی انجام گرفته است و یافته­های آن نشان می­دهند که در نگرش­های هستی­شناختی مکتب اپیکوری و فلسفۀ چارواکه هم وجوه اشتراک و هم نقاط افتراق وجود دارند. در این دو مکتب، صرفاً ماده واقعیّت دارد، علل فاعلی و غایی جهان نفی می­شوند، وجود انسان تنها برمبنای بُعد مادی­اش تبیین شده و نیز هر گونه جوهر و هستی پس از مرگ یا آگاهیِ مجزا از بدن، انکار می­گردد. لکن در حالی­که وجود عناصر اولیه مادی و نشأتِ کثرات از آنها در چارواکه تبیینی حسی دارد، در مکتب اپیکوری از وجهی کاملاً عقلی برخوردار است. این دو فلسفه، دربارۀ شمار عناصر مادی تشکیل­دهندۀ عالم هستی، چیستی و انواع آنها، همچنین دربارۀ مشهود یا نامشهود بودن آنها تفاسیر متفاوتی را ارائه می­کنند. برخلاف چارواکه که به نفی خدایان و ارواح می­پردازد، اپیکوریسم خدایان و ارواح را ثمرۀ ترکیب اتم­های ویژه­ای می­داند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Materialistic Ontology: A Comparative Study of the philosophy of Charvaka and Epicures

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajjad Dehghanzadeh 1
  • fatemeh ahmadian 2

1 Assistant Professor. Shahid Madani University of Azarbaijan

2 Master Student of Religions and Mysticism, Shahid Madani University of Azarbaijan

چکیده [English]

In the history of religious and philosophical thought of India, Charvaka philosophy (Lokayata) is a unique school of thought that by having theoretical tenets of materialism, provides a purely materialistic interpretation of existence. This school, through the negation of realm beyond sensory perception, asserts to the pure originality of the material and supposes that the only the material reality has validity and the sole authentic perception is the sensory perception. Expressing of atomistic cosmology, apparently, Epicurean philosophy in Greece is the most similar school of thought to Charvakh. The findings of this article which is obtained by method of comparison and analyze, shows that in both schools of thought, reality is based on the originality of the material, two kinds of causes are rejected, human's existence is explained only based on his material dimension, as well as any existence after death is denied. However, these two of philosophy offer different interpretations about the component of existence and nature and kinds of them as well as about tangible or intangible of them. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • charvake
  • Epicures
  • Ontology
  • Materialism
  • reality
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