امتناع جعل ماهیت موجودات ممکن، از جمله دلایلی است که برای اثبات نظریه«اصالت وجود» اقامه شده است. جعل ماهیت به دلیل عدم امکان جعل احکام ضروری، ممتنع دانسته شده است. امتناع جعل احکام ضروری حکایت از توجه به حکمت در قبال قدرت دارد. اگر حکمت را بر قدرت مقدم بداریم، میتوانیم به امتناع جعل احکام ضروری حکم نمائیم. اما اگر توجه مبنائی به حکمت نداشته باشیم، جعل احکام ضروری را ممتنع نخواهیم دانست.
از این رو آنچه که در این مقاله مورد بررسی قرار میگیرد: توجه به مبانی و تمایل عمیق فیلسوفان در مواجه با آموزههای فلسفی است. واکاوی این نظر نشانگر این است که اندیشه فیلسوفان از هر گرایش و هر تمایلی فارغ نیست. بنابراین اندیشه برخی از فیلسوفان بر مبنای حکمت استوار شده است و آنها کمترین تخطی را از این مبنا جایز نمیدانند. در مقابل برخی از مبنای حکمت فاصله گرفتهاند و قدرت را مبنای اندیشه خویش در آموزههای فلسفی قرار دادند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Primacy of Existence: Priority of Wisdom over Power in the Philosophy of Sadra
Wisdom and power can be regarded as the principles used by philosophers in their encounter with the universe and its explication. In the current essay, wisdom is understood as a basis for understanding the affairs which are immune to change and mortality. The power also represents one's ability to determine and change all judgments and relations on behalf of power. Then, if a philosopher considers the essential features of all entities to be existentiated, in the view of such philosopher power does not have any limitation and power will be the basis for him. But if we consider relations immune to change we have indeed prioritized the wisdom over the power and sided with the idea of priority of wisdom over the power. In the eyes of such philosopher the wisdom will be the basis. In the present article we seek to articulate this priority of wisdom over power in transcendent theosophy of Mulla Sadra based on his doctrine of primacy of existence. To this end, we will investigate the works of Mulla Sadra focusing on the doctrine of primacy of existence.
Key Words: Wisdom, Power, Primacy of Existence, Mulla Sadra.
The relationship between wisdom and power is one of controversial philosophical issues. This relationship can be analyzed from various points of view. In the current essay we have sought to approach the issue from an ontological point of view.
2. Existentiation of Existence and Primacy of Existence
One of the reasons that are proposed for demonstration of the idea of "primacy of existence" is the impossibility of the existentiation of the essence of the contingent beings. The essence of contingent beings is not existentiable. Thus, what is essentially existentiated by the existentiator is existence. It is indeed existence that becomes existentiated by the existentiator and it is through this existentiation that the contingent being becomes realized.
3. Existentiation of Existence or Essence in Empirical Sciences
Existentiation of existence or essence is a philosophical problem. But in the domain of empirical sciences it can be discussed too. The researcher of empirical sciences can create new stuff through laboratorial works and mixing certain materials with other materials. He can also analyze it. Nevertheless, the identity of this new stuff is unknown and its recognition requires some efforts. Thus, even in empirical domain we should believe in the existentiation of existence versus essence.
4. Requirement of Existentiation of Essence
Existentiation of essence is considered to be impossible due to the impossibility of existentiation of necessary judgments. Necessary judgments are among the affairs in which one cannot think of existentiation. Then, any idea that would lead to the existentiation of necessary judgments will be impossible and unjustified.
5. Comprehensiveness of Power versus Necessary Judgments, Priority of Power over Wisdom
As to the comprehensive inclusion of power versus necessary judgments one should say that it implies the priority of power over the wisdom. When we regard power to include necessary judgments and do not consider the latter to be free from the domination of the power we have indeed prioritized the power over wisdom and made the latter subjugated to the former because it is the power that is decisive in all judgments, even in necessary judgments, and it is this power that determines the rules of wisdom and there is no restriction from this point of view.
6. Primacy of Essence
Thus, the problem of primacy of existence or primacy of essence constitutes significant backgrounds for the thinker's theorization. If the thinker's intellectual efforts are aimed at the search for wisdom in this case the necessary judgments will be beyond the domain of power and he will define power over against the necessary affairs. But if the deepest layers of a thinker's thought are consisted of power he will give priority to power as against everything even the necessary judgments.
7. Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and the Attention to Wisdom
But the ideas proposed by Muslim theosophers in this regard and the denial of possibility of existentiation of necessary judgments and the impossibility of attribution of power to impossible affairs have their origin in religious sources. Wisdom and power can be regarded as the principles used by philosophers in their encounter with the universe and its explication. In the current essay, wisdom is understood as a basis for understanding affairs which are immune to change and mortality. Here we refer to two examples. Imam Ali is quoted to have been asked once whether God is able to put the universe inside an egg without minimizing that or maximizing this. Imam says: God is not unable but this is impossible (Mulla Sadra, 1987, vol. 3: 30). Such an answer suggests that Imam Ali does not make wisdom subjugated to power and gives priority to wisdom over power. Although Imam does not introduce the power as an absolute thing he still allows some domain of influence for it. Thus, here we are encountered with an original view of the priority of wisdom over power.
If a philosopher considers the essential features of all entities to be existentiated in the view of such philosopher power does not have any limitation and power will be the basis for him. But if we consider relations in which there is no change we have indeed prioritized the wisdom over the power and sided with the idea of priority of wisdom over the power. In the eyes of such philosopher the wisdom will be the basis. In the present article we seek to articulate this priority of wisdom over power in transcendent theosophy of Mulla Sadra based on his doctrine of primacy of existence. To this end, we will investigate the doctrine of primacy of existence.
- Mulla Sadra, Four Intellectual Journeys on Transcendent Theosophy, Tehran, Sadra Foundation of Islamic Philosophy, 2003, vol. 1.
- Foulquié, Paul, General Introduction Philosophy or Metaphysics, trans. Yahya Mahdavi, Tehran University Press, 1998.
- Motahari, Collected Works, Tehran, Sadra, vol. 10.