The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد فلسفه، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی(ره)

2 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

یکی از مفاهیم مورد بحث در فرا اخلاق مفهوم خوبی است که در سیاق­های اخلاقی بسیار به کار می­رود و نقش مهمی در صدور داوری اخلاقی دارد از فیلسوفانی که به این مفهوم پرداخت و آن را غیرقابل تقلیل به دیگر مفاهیم اخلاقی می­دانست، ویلیام دیوید راس است. با این حال پیشینیان وی از جمله کانت و مور هم در باب خوبی نظریه پردازی کرده­اند که نظرات آن­ها بر او تأثیر داشته است. نوشتار حاضر در صدد است تا دیدگاه فرا اخلاقی او را در پرتو دو نظریه مور و کانت به روش تطبیقی و تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه­ای مورد مداقه قرار دهد که در چه مواردی راس از این دو فیلسوف تاثیر پذیرفته است و آیا می توان به رغم این تاثیرها نظر راس را دیدگاهی بدیع محسوب نمود. در نهایت تحقیق حاضر نتیجه­گیری می­نماید راس علیرغم تأثیری که از پیشینیان پذیرفته سعی کرده تا مشکلات آن­ها را برطرف کند و با ترکیب نظرات کانت و مور و اضافه کردن عناصر دیگر به آن­­ها نظریه شخصیت خوب اخلاقی را ارائه نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Originality of Ross’s Meta-Ethical View on Good and its Justification in Moral act in Light of the philosophy of Kant and Moore

نویسندگان [English]

  • HOSSEIN Kalbasi Ashtari 1
  • Bita Nakhaei 2

1 Professor of Allameh Tabataba’i University

2 Ph.D. Student of Allameh Tabataba’i University

چکیده [English]

One of the most important concepts in meta-ethics which are used in moral contexts and has a significant role in moral judgments is the concept of goodness, which is a value concept. William David Ross was a philosopher who scrutinized this concept and said it is not analyzable to other moral concepts such as ought, right, duty and responsibility. Although other philosophers preceded him including Kant and Moore theorized about goodness and had different accounts about this concept, their views had a deep influence on Ross. This paper tries to examine his meta-ethical view in the light of Kant and Moore’s thoughts and their ethical theories. The method of this research is comparative and descriptive and has used books and online sources in order to see in what cases he was influenced by them and to what extent we can call his view new. Finally, this research concludes that though Ross was influenced by them, he could overcome their difficulties and bring up his new theory about this subject. And although he criticized their thoughts, he tried to unite some elements of their views and added other elements to them in order to express his final theory about the goodness of character.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • good
  • moral action
  • intuitionism
  • Ross
  • virtue
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