The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری کلام گرایش فلسفه دین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران

2 استادیار دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه الهیات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اصفهان(خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

تخریب محیط‏زیست به دلیل پیامدهای ناگواری که برای بشر به همراه داشته است، تبدیل به یکی از بزرگترین چالش‏های دنیای معاصر شده است و برای بقای کل نظام طبیعت از جمله انسان هیچ موضوعی مهم‏تر از حل این مسئله نیست. این بحران نخست در غرب آغاز شد و پس از آن با ورود تجدد به شرق در سطحی جهانی مطرح شد. از نظر  نصر علت این امر تقدس­زدایی تدریجی از طبیعت است. اندیشمندان برای حل بحران محیط‏زیست راهکارهایی ارائه داده‏اند که اغلب برگرفته از مهندسی محیط‏زیست است. وی بی آنکه منکر ارزشمندی این راه‏حل‏ها باشد شیوه علمی را به تنهایی حلال مشکلات نمی‏داند، زیرا بر این باور است که خود علوم تجربی در برابر این بحران مسئول است. وی رویکردی مابعد الطبیعی را بر می‏گزیند و او معتقداست که تنها با احیای معرفت قدسی طبیعت می‏توان از این مشکلات رهایی یافت. هر چند بعضی از متفکران مسلمان، طبیعیات سنتی را در دوران معاصر خالی از فایده می‏دانند ولیکن سنت­گرایان بر این باورند که سنت اسلامی واجد منابعی غنی برای تبیین فلسفه علوم است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به گرداوری اطلاعات کتابخانه‌ای پرداخته و این دیدگاه را مورد تحلیل قرار داده است. هدف این پژوهش نقد و بررسی ابعاد فلسفی بحران می‏باشد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد: با این احیاگری هم اصول اخلاقی درخصوص طبیعت تحکیم می‏شود و هم نیاز انسان متجدد به ایجاد ارتباط معنوی با طبیعت برآورده می‏شود. براین اساس این نظریه می‏تواند به عنوان یک راه‏حل دارای ارزش وجایگاه ممتاز باشد.

تازه های تحقیق

The Revival of Sacred Essence of Nature, the Solution to Environmental Crisis

(Review of the Philosophical View of Seyed Hossein Nasr)

Farshad Tohidnia1, Ali. R. Jalali2, S. Hossain Vaezi3

1-Ph.D. student in Department of Religious Philosophy, Isfahan (Khorasgan)Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran,E-mail: Tohidniva_f@yahoo.com

2-Assistant Professor of religions and mysticism, Payam Noor University, Isfahan, Iran, (corresponding author) E-mail: A.Jalali@pnu.ac.ir

3-Associate Professor of Islamic Mysticism, Isfahan (Khorasgan)Branch,Islamic Azad University,Isfahan, Iran, E-mail: Sh.vaezi@khuisf.ac.ir

 

Abstract

Environmental degradation has become one of the biggest challenges of the contemporary world because of the bad consequences of mankind and it is nothing more important for the survival of the whole system of nature, including man. The first crisis started in the west, followed by modernity to the east at a global level. In Nasr's belief, this is a gradual nature. Scholars have developed solutions to solve the environmental crisis, often from environmental engineering. Without denying these solutions, he does not know the scientific method by itself as a problem solver, as it is believed that empirical science itself is responsible for this crisis. His post approach can be saved from these problems only by restoring the divine knowledge of nature. Some Muslim thinkers, however, have traditionally seen the tradition of use in contemporary times, believing that the Islamic tradition is a rich resource to explain the philosophy of science. The present study using descriptive-analytical method has been used to collect library data and this view is presented. The purpose of this study is to investigate the crisis in this research; however, the ethical principles on nature are strengthened and the need of a modern human to create a spiritual connection with nature is met. Accordingly, the theory can serve as a - valued solution.

Keywords: Nasr, Spiritual Crisis, Environmental Crisis, Contemporary Man, Ephemera, Tradition

1. Statement of the problem

   Different paradigms and theoretical approaches to scientific research have been proposed to respond to the environmental crisis. One of the existing approaches in this regard is the philosophical approach which considers the environmental crisis as the moral and theological crisis. In this approach, the role of religion has been emphasized to respond to environmental problems. It seems that the solution to the environmental crisis in this view is the theological and philosophical solution. Among thinkers, Nasr is one who takes an important and effective role for the religion to solve the environmental crisis. He believes the environmental crisis is spiritual. So, one should find a spiritual solution to respond to the environmental crisis and seek it in religion. Having intended to struggle with the modernity of extreme humanist schools, Nasr proposed the return of spirituality to nature and considered human beings as part of nature to save the natural living of human beings.

2. The main points of Nasr’s thought system

1. Attention to reasons for the emergence of the environmental crisis, Nasr firstly considers this crisis as a spiritual challenge and believes that the main reason for it is the lack of metaphysics.

2. Though environmental engineers act upon scientific approach, Nasr chooses a metaphysic. In this approach, the legitimacy in science accepts as a definite affair confined to the material aspects of realities.

3. The origin of a human being transferred from heaven to earth, in the contemporary era, attention was directed from the hereafter to the world, and its origin departed completely from the divine source.

4. In his various works, Nasr knows the radical solution to solve the environmental crisis in recovering and restoration nature. He considers it as a divine reality and an establishment of the spiritual relationship between the human being and nature and also considers the birth of the human being, the vicegerent of God, as the keeper of the holy order.

5. Since Nasr and traditionalists firstly consider the environmental crisis spiritual, so, in his view, the role of religions to solve this struggle is very fundamental and critical.

6. The responsibility of the human being as the vicegerent of God on the earth is an important content to be considered (Nasr, 1968, p. 113).

3. The reasons for the emergence of the environmental crisis

1. Gradual nature’s desecration; 2. Rationalism; 3. Humanism.

4. The solution to solve the environmental crisis

In Nasr’s view, the only method to solve the environmental crisis is a way which earns reversely in nature’s desecration and also in gained knowledge. It means that a process resulted in secularism and monopolization of the science should be overturned; furthermore, regarding the holiness of nature, the instructions of the world, as well as metaphysics, should be revived (Nasr, 1386a, pp.207-208).

Review

1. The debatable point of the solution is that the general direction of discussions from the beginning, in continuation to the discussion, basics of the thought system, and the proof of hypotheses in this thinking is based on the rational intuition independent of the making introduction in philosophy and reasoning of it.

2. Nasr’s critic of modernity depends on subjectivity. It seems that the west philosophy and modernity have independent natures. He does not make any reason for modern science to have a unit nature which is secular and independent from the divine source, but he refers it to historical evidence.

3. One of the important critics about traditionalists, including Nasr, is reasoning aversion of traditional thinking. According to this critic, one can argue that he has not proposed any argument to solve the environmental crisis.

4. How is it possible to return to the past and pass through the process of nature’s desecration reversely? His answer may be that we do not mean vain return. But this issue remains in the modern world in which we live and passing through it is impossible.

5. Some critics may believe that “traditional” and “traditionalism” do not make a difference in Nasr's view. If people had modern tools, would they have used them? Did their divine world view cause not to exploit nature or lack of tools made it impossible to return to the past to make similar the life with ancient people? 

The general answer

The critic of Nasr does not mean to remove technology and modern sciences nor to wish to return to the past. He says that the divinely holy look existed in the traditional world which originated from the ground of the intellectual space of the tradition. Those divine principles (traditions) must overcome now, too. The main problem of Muslim thinkers is that they want to look at themselves, their cultures and other issues from modernity points of view; while, Nasr believes that we should look from inside to outside, we should look outside from our eyes.

Discussion and conclusion

The researcher believes that one cannot cast doubt in the necessity of compilation of the theology of the environmental theology and regarding ranks, environmental theology is anterior to environmental engineering. Nasr’s explanation of the reasons for the emergence of the environmental crisis corresponds to external realities to a great extent. His solution can also be very useful and effective in many ways; it has a high position because of many provided reasons in the research. Undoubtedly, the meet of the human being, the vicegerent of God, is different from that of the human being, the rebel, and the first human being inflicts less damage to the environment even in the modern world. But traditionalists ‘metaphysics- Philosophia prennis (eternal wisdom)- should be considered whether it is necessarily the best and only way to solve the future struggles of the contemporary man which its solution depends on reviving the philosophy of the traditional nature. The holiness of nature means that it is necessary to do ethics instructions before performing the technology development plan with the use of the precautionary approach. It is the correction of the inappropriate behavior of the human being with the environment which helps largely to protect the environment; it perhaps prevents the actions cause many damages to the environment which their compensations bear many costs. 

References

-        Dinparas, M. (2008) Conversation with Seyyed Hossein Nasr: “Traditional man, modern man and the environmental crisis,” Philosophy, Quran and Sufism: The Monthly magazine of Hikmat and Marefat, June: 8-27 [In Persian].

-        Gahanbagloo, R. (2008) In search of sacred sense R. Jahanbagloo's interview with H. Nasr trans. M. ShahrAeini, Tehran: Nashr Ney [In Persian].

-        Nasr, S. H. (1998) “Man and nature: the spiritual crisis of modern man”. (A. Jalili Trans.). Review and Opinion, summer and autumn, No. 15: 204-213 [In Persian]. 

-        Passmor, john (1974) Man's Responsibility for Nature, NewYork: scriber.

-        Passmor, john (2002) “Religion and the Environmental crisis features in the essential, World Wisdom, Inc”. Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press [In Persian].

-        Passmor, john (2006) “The Heart of Islam”, trans. M. ShahrAeini, (Sh. Pazouki, Revision). Tehran: Haghighat [In Persian].

-        Passmor, john (2007) "The Immortal Knowledge "Proceedings of Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Vol. 1, by Contribution of S. H. Hosseini & M. Niosha. [In Persian].

-        Passmor, john (2007) “Traditional Islam in the Modern World,” trans. M. Salehi, Research and Research Center. [In Persian].

-        White, lynn (1973) “The historical Roots of our Ecological crisis” Science, vol. 155.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Revival of Sacred Essence of Nature, the Solution to Environmental Crisis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farshad Tohidnia 1
  • Alireza Jalali 2
  • Seyed Hosein Vaezi 3

1 Ph.D. student in Department of Religious Philosophy, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of religions and mysticism, Payam Noor University, ,Iran,

3 Associate Professor of Islamic Mysticism, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Environmental degradation has become one of the biggest challenges of the contemporary world because of the bad consequences of mankind and it is nothing more important for the survival of the whole system of nature, including man. The first crisis started in the west, followed by modernity to the east at a global level. In Nasr's belief, this is a gradual nature. Scholars have developed solutions to solve the environmental crisis, often from environmental engineering. Without denying these solutions, he does not know the scientific method by itself as a problem solver, as it is believed that empirical science itself is responsible for this crisis. His post approach can be saved from these problems only by restoring the divine knowledge of nature. Some Muslim thinkers, however, have traditionally seen the tradition of use in contemporary times, believing that the Islamic tradition is a rich resource to explain the philosophy of science. The present study using descriptive-analytical method has been used to collect library data and this view is presented. The purpose of this study is to investigate the crisis in this research; however, the ethical principles on nature are strengthened and the need of a modern human to create a spiritual connection with nature is met. Accordingly, the theory can serve as a - valued solution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nasr
  • Spiritual Crisis
  • Environmental Crisis
  • Contemporary Man
  • Ephemera
  • tradition
-        Abedi Sarvestani, A., Shahvali, M., Mohaqeq Damad, & Sayyed Mostafa. (2007) “The nature and views of environmental ethics”, with an emphasis on the Islamic perspective. Journal of Ethics in Science and Technology, 2(1), 7-59. [In Persian].
-        Asghari Lafmajani, S. (1997) “The Basics of Environmental Protection in Islam” (Unpublished master's degree in resource engineering natural environment), Natural Resources Faculty, Tarbiat Modarres University. [In Persian].
-        Awani, Gh. (2003) “In the sense of tradition”. Institute of Human Sciences Research and Development. [In Persian].
-        Dinparas, M. (2008) Conversation with Seyyed Hossein Nasr: “Traditional man, modern man and the environmental crisis,” Philosophy, Quran and Sufism: The Monthly magazine of Hikmat and Marefat, June: 8-27. [In Persian].
-        Guénon, R. (2008) “Modern world crisis,” trans. H. Azizi, Tehran: Hekmat Publications.Human Sciences, Number 5, quoted from the Thais Club website.
-        Ghasemi A. (2011) “Sayyed Hossein Nasr's views on the environmental crisis and its solutions, Contemporary Humor Magazine”, No. 1, 85-104. [In Persian].
-        Gahanbagloo, R. (2008) “In search of sacred sense”: R. Jahanbagloo's interview with H. Nasr, trans. M. Shahr Aeinei, Tehran: Nashr-e Ney. [In Persian].
-        Mohaqeq, D. (2015) “Theology of the environment”, Institute of Philosophy and Hekmatof Iran Tehran.
-        Nasr, S. H. (1998) “Man and nature: the spiritual crisis of modern man”. trans. Jalili, Review and Opinion, summer and autumn, No. 15: 204-213. [In Persian].
-        Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1968) Man and nature the spiritual critisis of modern man. Mandala Books. Published by Unwin paperbacks. London.
-        Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1996) The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia. Edited by Mehdi Amin Razavi. First Published By Curzon Press.
-        Passmor, john. (1974) "Mans Responsibility for Nature", New York: scriber.
-        Passmor, john (2000) “Man and Nature: The Spiritual Crisis of Modern Man”. trans. A. Gavahi, Tehran: Islamic Culture Publishing Office. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, john (2001) “Knowledge and Sacrecy”. trans. F. Haji Mirzaie, Tehran: Farzan Rooz Publication and Research. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, john (2002) “Religion and the Environmental crisis features in the essential, World Wisdom, Inc.”, Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
-        Passmor, john (2004) “In West Ruthenia: The Self-Writing Life of Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr”. trans. A. Nasri & A. Maziar, Tehran: Rasa.[In Persian].
-        Passmor, john (2004) “Islam and the Contemporary Human Dilemmas,”trans. I. Rahmati, Tehran: Suhrawardi Research and Publishing Office. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2005)“The ultimate and realities of Islam.” trans. I. Rahmati [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2006) “Islamic Education in the Contemporary World”, Tehran: Entesharat-e Elmi va Farhangi. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2006) “Knowledge and Spirituality”. trans. Islamic Revolution, (3rd ed.), Tehran: Suhrawardi Research and Publishing Office. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2006) “The Heart of Islam”, Translated. trans. M. Shahr Aeini. revision. Sh. Pazouki, Tehran: Haghighat.
-        Passmor, John (2006)” In search of the holy thing. R. Jahanbagloo's Interview with S. H. Nasr”. trans. S. M. Shahr Aeini, Tehran: Nashr-e Ney Publishing. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2007) "The Immortal Knowledge "Proceedings of Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Vol. 1, by Contribution of S. H. Hosseini & M. Niosha. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2007) "Thoughts on the Future of Civilization." trans. M. Fathizadeh, The Journal of Theology. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2007) “Traditional Islam in the Modern World,”trans. M. Salehi, Research and Research Center. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2007) “Islam and modern thought”. trans. M. Ansari, Thais Club website. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2008) “Man and nature of the spiritual crisis of modern man”. [In Persian].
-        Passmor, John (2010) "Religion and the Nature of Nature". trans. I. Rahmati, 3rd ed., Tehran: Nashr-e Ney. [In Persian].
-        Rahmati, I. (2008) “Religion, ethics and the environment, Philosophy, Theology and Sufism”: The Information Technology Journal of Hekmat and Knowledge. [In Persian].
-        Train, Rassell (1990) “vital speech of the day”.
-        White, lynn (1973) “Thehistorical Roots of our Ecological crisis” Science, Vol. 155.
-        White, lynn (2005) "the Historical roots of our ecological crisis." Malekian, M. Pojman, L. Environmental ethics. Vol. 1. Tehran: Tosseh Publication. [In Persian].
CAPTCHA Image