Journal of Philosophical Investigations

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Prof. Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Iran. Ardebil


There are many trinities in Islamic philosophical, mystical, and religious sources on various topics; these trinities can be divided into three general categories, including: "God's Affairs", " Universe" and "human faculties". 
The most important trinities of God's Affairs are the trinity of "Essences, Attributes and Acts" which is the basis of all mystical teachings and trinities that have been raised in Islamic mysticism. In the case of the universe, the three degrees of "kingdom (Molk), Dominion (Malakoot) and Archangelic world (Jabaroot)" can be noted. These three mystical interpretations are, respectively, in the philosophical term "matter, imagine and intellect," and in the religious interpretation "material world, inter-world and ultimate world." According to the hierarchy of the universe, a very important three-fold hierarchy of time, namely, "Time (Zaman), Aeon (Dahr), eternity (Sarmad)," is raised; but in the case of human faculties, the hierarchy of "senses, imagination, and intellect" is the most central trinities. And so in the sub-themes, there are other important trinities, based on the main points mentioned above. Now, the central question in this article is why the emphasis here is on the 'trinities'? And what relation can the trinity hierarchy have to a degree less or more? Is there a logical connection to the hierarchy mentioned in this article? Or can we put any of the trinities beside the hierarchy? The answer to all of these questions lies in the principle of Gradation (Tashkik) in Islamic philosophy; therefore, each branch of the above-mentioned trinities is three degrees of the same truth and has a long relationship with each other's; and in fact they all are one thing with several degrees. The end result of these discussions is the possibility of achieving unity in plurality. 



There are many trinities in Islamic wisdom and knowledge that draw on a particular semantic line in various respects and emphasize the existence of a semantic order; So that one can find a logical connection between them. The above-mentioned trinities have the most important and fundamental theme of Islamic acknowledge, "God, man, and the world" in different ways. 

For the sake of brevity, we discuss only a few of the trinities related to the three themes of "God, Man, and the Universe," and let us briefly refer to the other triplets; the purpose of the "trilogy" project is primarily to show that there are trinities with logical relevance in different areas of Islamic knowledge; And then let's ask: What is the logical relationship between them and what are the implications of this relationship? 


I used, in this study, descriptive analyses that are used by theoretical research groups.

Findings and Argument:

  1. According to this article, there is a longitudinal relationship between all three branches of this article. Some triplets have a bottom-up direction and some a top-down direction, that is, some are projected in the descending arc of being and knowledge, and some are in the ascending arc.
  2. Each of the triplets is one truth with three degrees; in other words, the trinities are three degrees of one truth.
  3. Finally, all the trinities mentioned in this article can be reduced to three general headings, "God, Man, and the Universe." These three eventually go back to God's "acts, attributes, and essence." 


Without any doubt, the above-mentioned trinities are the backbone of philosophical, wisdom, mystical, and religious debates in the Islamic world; and from this point of view, the unity of "being" of knowledge can be projected and defended with it's plurality of "manifestation".   


-       Quran.
-       Ibn abi-Jamhor, Muhammad ibn Zayn al-Din (1405 AH) Avali Al lali, Qom.
-       Ibn Sina, Hussein (1980) Ayoun al-Hekme, Beirut: Dar al-Qalam.
-       Ibn Arabi, Mohiuddin (1367 AH) Collection of Rasa'il ibn Arabi, Beirut: Dar Ahiya alturas al-Arabi.
-       Ibn Arabi Mohiuddin.(1405) Al-Futhaat al-Mukiyyah. Egypt: Osman Taha's investigation.
-       Ashtiani, Seyyed Jalaluddin (1376) Existence in philosophy and mysticism, Qom: The Office of Islamic Propagation in the Seminary of Qom. (in Persian)
-       Ashtiani, Seyyed Jalaluddin (1370) Qaisari introduction to Fosos al hekam, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publications. (in Persian)
-       Amoli, Haidar ibn Ali (1422 AH) Interpretation of al-Muhit al-'Azam and al-Bahr al-Khazam, Qom: Nooron Ala Noor. (in Persian)
-       Amoli, Haider bin Ali (1368) Jame al asrar ve manba al anvar, Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Higher Education, Center for Scientific and Cultural Publications. (in Persian)
-       Boroujerdi, Hussein bin Reza (1416 AH) Commentary of al Serat al-Mastaqim, Qom: Ansariyan. (in Persian)
-       Jahangiri, Mohsen (1996) Mohiuddin ibn Arabi The Prominent Face of Islamic Mysticism, Tehran: Tehran University Press. (in Persian)
-       Javadi Amoli, Abdullah (2014) The Quran in the Quran, Qom: Captives.
-       Haqqi Barsoy, Ismail ibn Mustafa (1430 AH) Meraat al-Haqaeq, Cairo: Dar al-Aafaq al-Arabi.
-       Razi, Fakhruddin (1411) Al-mabahes ol-Mashreeqiyye. Qom: Bidar Publications.
-       Rezanejad, Gholamhossein (1383) Al-Tamhid Al-Mubani's, Tehran: Al-Zahra. (in Persian)
-       Sabzevari, Mohammad Ebrahim (2007) Description of Golshan e Raz (Sabzevari), Tehran: Elm Publishing. (in Persian)
-       Sabzevari, Mullah Hadi (1374) Description of Masnavi (Sabzevari), Tehran: Ministry of Islamic Guidance Press and Publication. (in Persian)
-       Sabzevari, Mollahadi (1360) Al-TaliGhat Ala al-Shawahid al-Rubybi fi Al-Manahij al-Soloukiye, Tehran: University Publishing Center. (in Persian)
-       Sajjadi, Seyyed Ja'far (2000) Mulla Sadra's Philosophical Terminology, Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. (in Persian)
-       Sultan Ali Shah, Sultan Muhammad ibn Heydar (1372) Persian text and translation of Sharif's commentary on al-Saadi's statement to the authorities of al-Abadi, Tehran: Saralar Sar. (in Persian)
-       Semnani, Alaa al-Dawleh (2004) Semnani Persian Works, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company. (in Persian)
-       Shahrzouri, Shamsuddin (1383) Rasa'il al-Shajar at al-Elahi. Tehran: Institute of Wisdom and Philosophy of Iran. (in Persian)
-       Safi Alishah, Mohammad Hassan bin Mohammad Bagher (1371) Erfan al-Haq, Tehran. (in Persian)
-       Tabatabaei. Mohammad Hossein (1374) Translated by al-Mizan. Qom: Islamic Publications Office. (in Persian)
-       Tayyeb, Abdul Hussein (1369 AH) Atyab Al Bayan, Tehran: Islam. (in Persian)
-       Abedi Ahmed (2000) "Gradation in Islamic Philosophy". Journal of Philosophical - Theological Research, Nos. 5 and 6. Pages 34 - 47. (in Persian)
-       Feyz Kashani, Mohammad bin Shah Morteza (1415 AH) Tafsir al-Saafi, Tehran: Maktabat al-Sadr. (in Persian)
-       Qaderi, Hassan ibn Musa ibn Abdullah (1427 AH) Tavilat Al Quran , Beirut: Dar al-ehya al-Turas al arabi.
-       Qomi, Qazi Saeed (2002) Al-Arbeiniyyat Le Kashf e Anwar al-Qudsiya, Tehran: Miras e Maktoob (Written Heritage). (in Persian)
-       Gheysari, Davood (2002) Rasail Gheeysari, Tehran: Research Institute of Wisdom and Philosophy of Iran. (in Persian)
-       Kashani Abdul Razzaq (1422) Interpretation of Ibn 'Arabi (The Interpretations of Abd al-Razzaq), Beirut: The Revival of Al-Thrash al-Arabi.
-       Kashani, Abd al-Razzaq (1426 AH) Latayef al-'Alaam, Cairo: al-Saqaft al-Dinai school.
-       Ghoroush's autobiography, Morteza (2002) Moheb Rahman Fe Tafsir al-Qur'an (editor), Azerbaijan Book Publishing Company. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (a. 1360) Al-Shawahed al-Rubaiyyah fi Manahej al-Sulokiyah. Tehran: Al Markaz Al Jameei le Al naashr. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1368) Al-Hakim al-Mutalliyyah Fi al-Asfar al-Arbae. Qom: al-Mustafawi school. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1354) al-Mabd al-Maad. Correcting: Ashtiani Seyed Jalaluddin. Tehran: Islamic Association of Wisdom and Philosophy of Iran. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1363) Mefatih Elgheyb. Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Higher Education. Islamic Association of Wisdom and Philosophy of Iran. Institute for Cultural Studies and Research. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1366) Interpretation of Quran al-Karim. Qom: Bidar. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1368) Al-Hekmat al-Mutalliyeh Fi al-Asfar al-Arbae. Qom: al-Mustafawi school. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1420 AH) Mulla sadra Philosophical Article collection, Tehran: Hekmat. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1302 AH) Resaele Mullah Sadra, Qom: Mustafawi school. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra, Mohammad ibn Ibrahim (1363) Mafatih al-Gheyb, Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Higher Education, Islamic Association of Iranian Philosophy and wisdom, Institute for Cultural Studies and Research. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1387) Three Philosophical Treatises, Qom: The Office of Islamic Propaganda. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1391 AH) Suspensions on the description of Hekmat Al Eshragh. Research: Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad. Tehran: Hekmat. (in Persian)
-       Mulla Sadra, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim (1402 AH) Sadr al-Mutallahin's Philosophical Rasa'il Collection of Unknown and Unpublished Works, Tehran: Hekmat. (in Persian)
-       ​​Rumi Jalaluddin Mohammad Balkhi (Molavi) (1384) Divan e Kabir e Shams, Tehran: Talaaeyye. (in Persian)
-       Rumi, Jalaluddin Muhammad (1373) Masnavi e manavi. Tehran: Press and Publication Organization of Ministry of Islamic Guidance. (in Persian)
-       Mirdamad, Mohammad Bagher and Alavi, Sayyid Ahmad (1376) Taghvim ol iman, and its description: Kashf al-Haqaeq, Tehran: Institute of Islamic Studies. (in Persian)
-       Mirdamad, Mohammad Bagher (1381-1385) Mir Damad's Works By the efforts of Norani Abdollah, Tehran: Publications of the Association of Cultural Works and figures. (in Persian)