Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه ریاضیات زیستی، ریاضیات کاربردی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/jpiut.2020.40100.2571

چکیده

شناخت بیشتر طبیعت در دو قرن اخیر و پیشرفت‌های چشمگیر علم و تکنولوژی موجب بوجود آمدن ایده‌ها و رویکردهای جذاب و جدیدی شده است که منتسب به علم معاصر شناخته می‌شود‌‌. ایده‌هایی نظیر تکامل در زیست‌‌شناسی، مسئله ابتدای جهان (مدل‌های مبتنی بر وجود نقطه زمانی شروع برای عالم و یا خلاف‌ آن) و ایدۀ جهان‌های موازی در فیزیک‌‌. هرچند این ایده‌ها در بستر علم جدید شکوفا گشته‌اند ولی بیش از‌ آنکه ایده‌هایی علمی باشند حاوی پس‌زمینه‌ها و نتایج فلسفی مهمی هستند‌‌. در این مقاله با بررسی تاریخی نوشته‌ها و آثار ابن‌سینا (فیلسوف و پزشک شهیر مسلمان 1000 سال قبل)، به‌عنوان نمونه و مرجع، نشان خواهیم داد که هر سۀ این ایده‌ها به شکلی کاملاً مشابه از زمان‌های قدیم در سطح فلسفه طبیعی مطرح بوده‌اند‌‌. لذا جایگاه‌ آن‌ها بیش از‌ آنکه علمی باشد فلسفی است‌‌. بیان این نظریه‌ها بدون در نظر داشتن پیش‌فرض‌های متافیزیکی و غیرتجربی‌ آن‌ها موجب برداشت‌های نادرست از علم خواهد شد‌‌. بسیاری از چالش‌های میان علم و دین ناشی از همین در نظر نگرفتن حدود علم تجربی و تشخیص سطح متافیزیکی نظریه‌هاست‌‌. در این مقاله به بیان دلایل ابن‌سینا بر له و علیه این نظریات به‌عنوان یکی از اولین افرادی که صریحاً به بررسی علمی و فلسفی این نظریات پرداخته است، می‌پردازیم‌‌. دقت علمی ابن‌سینا و روحیه علمی تحسین‌برانگیز او می‌تواند برای محققین معاصر آموزنده و روشنگرایانه باشد‌‌. همچنین در موضوع شانس و علّیت، بروشی متفاوت و با زبان علم روز به بررسی مسئلۀ غایتمندی و هدف‌داری عالم پرداخته‌شده است‌.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Are the Theories of Evolution, Multiverse, and the Inexistence of Universe Starting Point, the Product of Modern Science? Causality and Chance in Modern and Ancient Science

نویسنده [English]

  • Yousef Jamali

Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

In the last two centuries, a better understanding of nature and significant advances in science and technology have led to the emergence of new and exciting ideas and approaches. Almost all of them are known as the product of contemporary science. Ideas such as evolution in biology, the ideas about the beginning of the universe (models based on the existence of a starting point for the universe or otherwise), and the idea of parallel worlds in physics. Although these ideas have flourished in the context of modern science, they contain important philosophical backgrounds and as a result, have some important philosophical consequences.  In this article, a historical review of the writings and works of Ibn Sina shows that each of these ideas has been presented similarly since ancient times in natural philosophy. Therefore, their position is more philosophical than scientific. Using these theories without considering their metaphysical and non-experimental assumptions will lead to misconceptions. Many of the challenges between science and religion stem from not considering the limits of empirical science and a lack of attention to the metaphysical assumptions of scientific theories. In this article, we will explain Ibn Sina's reasons for or against these theories as one of the first people to explicitly examine the scientific and philosophical aspects of these theories. Ibn Sina's scientific accuracy and admirable scientific spirit can be enlightening for contemporary scholars.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Avicenna
  • Physics
  • Evolution
  • Multiverse
  • Beginning of cosmos
  • Chance
  • Causality
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