تبیین و نقد رویکرد پارادایمی در اندیشه‌های تربیتی غرب

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت اسلامی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانشیار گروه تاریخ و فلسفه آموزش و پرورش، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

10.22034/jpiut.2020.40597.2608

چکیده

انجام مؤثر فعالیت­های تربیتی مستلزم کسب نظریه‌های تربیتی است. در طول تاریخ از گذشته تا به امروز نظریه­های متعددی در حوزه‌ی تعلیم و تربیت پدید آمده است. درک و فهم این نظریه‌ها کار ساده و آسانی نیست. بنابراین سؤال اساسی در مطالعه‌ی آرای تربیتی، چگونگی درک و فهم نظریه‌های تربیتی یا به عبارتی، نظریه‌شناسی تربیتی است. رویکرد پارادایمی ازجمله رویکردها در نظریه‌پردازی و یا نظریه‌شناسی می‌باشد که می‌تواند ما را در خوانش و درک اندیشه‌ها، خصوصاً اندیشه‌های تربیتی کمک کند. دیدگاه پارادایمی در تبیین نظریه‌های علمی این است که در شکل­گیری نظریه‌ها ازجمله نظریه‌های تربیتی، باورها و مفروضات اساسی و به‌عبارتی‌دیگر «پارادایم» نقش مهمی دارند. اوصاف پارادایم‌ها از سه رکن اساسی هستی‌شناسی، معرفت‌شناسی و روش‌شناسی برخوردارند. تعلیم و تربیت نیز مانند پارادایم­ها دارای سه مؤلفه اساسی از قبیل اهداف، محتوی و روش‌های آموزش هستند. مؤلفه‌های تربیت از طریق بررسی و تحلیل عناصر پارادایم‌ها به دست می­آیند. نظریه­های تعلیم و تربیت را با توجه به ملاک زمان می‌توان در سه پارادایم پیشامدرن، مدرن و پسامدرن مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار داد. در این پژوهش، نظریه‌های تربیتی با رویکرد پارادایمی در سه پارادایم یاد شده مورد مطالعه قرارگرفته‌اند. روش مطالعه توصیفی-تحلیلی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining and criticizing the paradigmatic approach in Western educational thoughts

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Rabi Sam Khanian 1
  • Irandokht Fayyaz 2
1 Phd Candidate, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran. Iran.
2 Associate Professor, , Allameh Tabatabai University
چکیده [English]

Effective implementing of educational activities requires acquiring educational theories. Numerous theories have emerged throughout history from the past to the present. Understanding these theories is not an easy task. So the central question in studying educational ideas is how to understand educational theories, or in other words, educational theology. The paradigmatic approach is one of the procedures related to theorizing or theory that can help us read and understand thought, especially educational thoughts. The paradigmatic perspective in explaining scientific theories plays an important role in the formation of theories, including educational theories, basic beliefs and assumptions, and in other words, the paradigm. The paradigmatic features have three basic elements: ontology, epistemology, and methodology. The scientific theories of education according to the criterion of time can be analyzed in three parts: pre-modern, modern and post-modern paradigms. Like paradigms, education has three essential components: goals, content, and methods of instruction. The components of education are obtained by examining and analyzing the elements of paradigms. In this study, educational theories with a paradigmatic approach have been studied in the three mentioned paradigms. The method of study is descriptive-analytical. In this method, first, through studying the descriptions of educational ideas they are analyzed, and then the paradigmatic analysis of the theories of education in the modern and postmodern period is identified. In the next step, by examining the paradigmatic features of the theories, the educational components i.e. the aims, content and methods of education are extracted from the educational elements. Another part of the research findings is related to criticism. In this section, the BARDI perspective is used for comparison and criticism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Paradigm approach
  • paradigm elements
  • Educational Components
  • Educational Theories
  • Modern
  • postmodern
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