Journal of Philosophical Investigations

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Candidate, Tabriz branch, Department of Islamic theology and philosophy, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz. Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic theology and philosophy, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz. Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic theology and philosophy, Ahar branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran


The relationship between the free will and the philosophical rule of "causal determinism" is one of the issues that have been the subject of controversy among Islamic thinkers, theologians, and philosophers. Well-known Islamic scholars do not consider causal determinism in conflict with this rational and necessary law, but some theologians, including Al-Ghazâlî have considered it contrary to the free will. Therefore, the focus of this research is to study and research the works of the prominent thinker of the Islamic world and the great Ash'arite (/æʃəˈriː/; Arabic: أشعریة‎ al-ʾAšʿarīyah or ٱلْأَشَاعِرَة al-ʾAšāʿirah) theologian (Al-Ghazâlî) to study and evaluate his theological thought about the relation of the free will and causal determinism. In this article, after explaining the concepts of the free will, causal determinism and will, the basic motives for denying causality in Ghazali's intellectual system have been examined. In general, it turns out that Ash'arite thought has overshadowed all of Al-Ghazâlî's theories and has led to his various orientations in all matters, including the free will. According to Al-Ghazâlî, believing in the rule of causal necessity requires the limitation of divine power and the deprivation of human free will and the free agent and the compulsion of God in his actions. Therefore, in answer to the main question of the research, that is, from the point of view of Al-Ghazâlî, is it possible to combine the belief in the causal determinism and the free will the free agent or not? It can be said that in Al-Ghazâlî's thought, human free will cannot be combined with causal necessity or determinsm.


Main Subjects

-       Alam al-Hoda, Seyyed Morteza (1999) Jamal al-Amal Va al-Alam, Seyyed Ahmad Hosseini, Najaf: Mabaat al-Ādāb. (in Arabic)
-       Ashtiani, Seied Jalal (2011) A Critique of Al-Ghazali Tahafat ol Falasafe, 2rd. Qom: Boostan-e Ketab Publishers. (in Persian)
-       Fakhuri, Hanna; Albahr, Khalil (2014) History of Philosophy in the Islamic World, trans. Abdolhamid Ayati, 11rd. Tehran: Cultural and Scientific Publishers. (in Persian)
-       Ghazali (1416) Collection of Letters of Imam Al-Ghazali, Beirout: Darolfekr. (in Arabic)
-       Ghazali (1993a) Aleghtesad fi Eteghad, Beirout: Maktab ol Helal. (in Arabic)
-       Ghazali (1993b) Tahafat ol falasafe, Comments: Jirar Jahami, Beirout: Darolfekr. (in Arabic)
-       Ghazali Abohamed Mohammad (1994) Tahafat ol Falasafe, Comments: Ali Bomalham, Beyrout: Maktab ol helal.1st. (in Arabic)
-       Ghazali, Ab, Hamed (1982) Ihya Ulum- id Din, New Delhi: Kitab Bhvan.
-       Ghazali, Abohamed (1406) Rozat ol Talebin & Amdal Salekin, Beirout: Darolketab Alelmieh. (in Arabic)
-       Ghazali, Mohammad (2003) Tahafat ol Falasafe, Reaserch: Soleiman Donia. Tehran: Shams Tabrizi. (in Persian)
-       Halabi, Aliasghar (2003) Tahafat ol Falasafe (Contradictions of philosophers), Tehran: Donya. (in Persian)
-       Hilli, Hassan ibn Yusuf (1981) Nahj Al-Haq Va Kashf Al-Sedq, Beirout: Al-Banani Art Gallery Press.
-       Homaie, Jalalaldin (2018) Ghazali Nameh, Tehran: Zavar Publishers. (in Persian)
-       Mesbah, Mohammad Taghi. (2000) Education of Falsafeh, Tehran: Islamic Propaganda Organization. (in Persian)
-       Moayedi, Ebrahim ibn Mohammad (1442) Alasbah Al almesbah fi Marefat almolk alfatah, Research. Abdolrahman Shayem, Sanea: Al imam Zeydaldin Ali Organization. (in Persian)
-       Sobhani (1428) Mohazerat fi Alelahiat, Abbreviation. Ali Rabani, 11rd. Qom: Alimam Sadeq Organization. (in Persian)
-       Tabatabaie, Mohammadhossein (2003) Nahaiat ol hekmat, Correct. Gholamreza Fayazi, Qom: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute. (in Persian)
-       Toosi, Khajenasir (1413) Ghavaed ol Aghayed, Beirout: Darol Gharyeh, 1rd.