Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه و کلام، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، ایران

2 استاد گروه فلسفه و کلام، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، ایران

3 دکتری فلسفه و کلام، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، ایران.


تدئوس متز کوشیده است تا نشان دهد که معنای زندگی مانند اخلاق و خوشبختی، یکی از مقولات هنجاری زندگی می‌­باشد و بر تمایز معنای زندگی و خوشبختی تاکید دارد. با جستجو در آثار متز می‌­توان چند شاهد و دلیل بر این که چرا متز میان خوشبختی و معناداری تمایز قائل می­‌شود، ارائه کرد. به باور متز خوشبختی، به قلمرو حیوانی فرد مرتبط است در حالی که معناداری مربوط به قلمرو انسانی است. او شش تمایز میان خوشبختی و معناداری قائل می‌­شود: 1) حاملِ معناداری، «عمل» (کنش) است، ولی حاملِ خوشبختی «احساس» است. 2) منشأ معنا «ارتباطی» است، ولی منشأ خوشبختی، «درونی و قائم به ذات» است؛ 3) تاثیرپذیریِ بیشتر خوشبختی از مقوله شانس نسبت به معناداری؛ 4) تمایل به «استمرار» وضعیت خوشبختی خواهانِ «افتخار عظیم» بودن معناداری؛ 5) امکان پذیر بودن خوشبختی، فقط در «طول دوران زندگی» در مقابلِ امکان‌پذیر بودن معناداری «پس از مرگ»؛ 6) تمایل به آینده در خوشبختی و فقدان یا کمی آن معناداری. اگرچه متز به شش تمایزِ مهم میان خوشبختی و معناداری اشاره کرده است، ولی بیان او جامع نیست و می­توان بر فهرست تمایزات او، موارد دیگری نیز افزود.



عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of Distinctions between Meaningfulness of Life and Happiness from the Point of View of Thaddeus Metz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Sanei 1
  • Eynollah Khademi 2
  • AmirHossein MansouriNouri 3
  • Mohsen Hosseini 1

1 Ph.D. Candidate of Philosophy and Theology, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran

2 Professor of Philosophy and Theology Department, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran

3 Ph.D. of Philosophy and Theology, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Thaddeus Metz has tried to show that the meaning in life, like morality and happiness, is one of the normative categories of life and emphasizes the distinction between the meaning in life and happiness. According to Metz's definition, happiness consists of "positive experiences" and pleasure is basically connected with happiness. Why is happiness different from meaningfulness and what are their differences? These are the main questions that this article addresses. By searching in Metz's works, we can provide some witnesses and reasons why Metz makes a distinction between happiness and meaningfulness. According to Metz's view, happiness is related to the animal realm of the individual, while meaningfulness is related to the human realm, so that although pleasure can increase happiness, but it will not necessarily lead to meaningfulness increase. He makes six distinctions between happiness and meaningfulness: 1. The source of meaning is "relational", but the source of happiness is "intrinsic"; 2. The bearer of meaning is "action", but the bearer of happiness is "sensation"; 3. The greater impact of happiness from “luck” than meaningfulness; 4. The desire to "continue" the state of happiness, wanting "esteem" to be meaningful; 5. The possibility of happiness, only "during the lifetime" in contrast to the possibility of meaningfulness "posthumously"; 6. bias towards the future v lack of bias. Although Metz has mentioned six important distinctions between happiness and meaning, his statement is not comprehensive and other distinctions can be added to Metz's list.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Thaddeus metz
  • meaning of life
  • pleasure
  • happiness
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