Journal of Philosophical Investigations

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Ahar branch

2 Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch


The problem of evil, by a logical framework, has seen the belief in a knowledgeable, almighty and purely good God logically inconsistent with the existence of evil in the universe, rather than challenging the existence of God and His attributes of perfection evidentially, relying on some absurd and apparently aimless evils or massiveness of human life difficulties. It is clear that the validity of this logical reasoning depends on the truth or probability of its annexational proposition, whereas, from the perspective of philosophers like Mulla Sadra, the idea of the best ordering of things based on the God’s providential knowledge insists on the falsehood of this annexational proposition regarding the conflict and interference in the material world, the limited point of view of human beings living in this world,  occurrence of evil by accident through Divine destiny etc. This paper aims to examine the logical reasoning of atheists and their annexational proposition, then propose Mulla Sadra’s defence against the logical problem of evil and study its strengths.


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