تحلیل ترجمه به مثابه یک هنر با اقتباس از بوطیقای ارسطو

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتری حکمت هنر دینی، دانشگاه ادیان و مذاهب قم

چکیده

در این مقاله ضمن تعهد به روشی تحلیلی- تطبیقی و با رجوع به آن‌چه ارسطو در بوطیقا ترسیم نموده، فرآیند ترجمه را همچون روند شکل‌گیری یک اثر هنری قرائت می‌کنیم. در مسیر مستندسازی این قرائت، خوانش متن به مثابه مشاهده محیط، فهم معنی به مثابه درک کردار، باز آفرینی متن به مثابه بازنمایی تصویر و واژه گزینی به مثابه صناعتی شاعرانه، چهار وجه شبه در تکوین استعاره «هنر ترجمه» هستند. در تشریح ثمره این قرائت نیز به این نقطه می‌رسیم که ترجمه‌ای که همچون اثر هنری وَرز یافته باشد، واجد یک وجه اخلاقی(یعنی تقلید وفادارانه از متن مبدأ) و یک وجه زیبایی‌شناختی(یعنی نوآوری برای فرهنگ مقصد) است. بر مبنای حکمت صناعی ارسطو، آن‌چه ترجمه مطلوب را در مرکز این پیوستار تعادل می‌بخشد، توجه به دو مضمون خلاقیت و بازنمایی است. بر این اساس، ترجمه در عین تمکین از ملاحظات اخلاقی، به ابداعات زیبایی‌شناسانه متمایل می‌شود و با این چشم انداز هنری و اخلاقی، روزنه‌ای را برای تعامل فرهنگ‌ها می‌گشاید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Analysis of Translation as an Art by Aristotle’s Poetics

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahdi Bahrami
PhD Student, University of Religions & Denominations, Qom
چکیده [English]

Abstract
In this text, which employs the analytic-comparative method, we read the Poetics of Aristotle in a new way to take an example of translation as an artistic creation. We can present the result of the essay as a metaphor called “the art of translation”, and then we refer to four evidences which can support our metaphor: reading the text as seeing the world, understanding the meaning as perceiving the main action, representing the text as recreating an image, and word making as the art of poetic. If we want to explain the useful dimension of our research, it can be said: every translation (if it is considered as an artistic creation) has a moral dimension which depends on its imitation of the author's line and reader's culture, and also has an artistic dimension that attends to the beauty of text and new vision of culture. According to Moderation theory of Aristotle, an ideal intercultural translation sees the right of author and reader by the equal criterion. Then it shows a production that is combined with “representation”, a term which can embrace the beauty and ethic in the art of translation.
Keywords: poetics, representation, artistic creation, art of translation, cultural relationship
 
 
 
1. Mimesis in art and translation
As Aristotle has said about art and poetry, they are based on Mimesis or imitation. It means that he believes art is Mimesis. But his theory about this issue is totally different to Plato’s thought. He thinks that Mimesis is not imitation of Ideas as Plato thought. Mimesis in his thought is imitation from the existence, aspect or form of things in this world. So he emphasizes that Mimesis is imitation of something or maybe happenings outside of man. After collecting all of Aristotle’s thoughts, especially about poetry, it seems clear that the imitation or Mimesis is a representation of the subject of imitation in which sometimes the subject of imitation has been represented better than its fact, like tragedy, and sometimes worse, like Comedy.
It seems that we can see translation as imitation, understanding the latter as in Aristotle’s conception of art mentioned above. Indeed, a translator at the beginning of is translation process looks at the text deeply and tries to understand it as well as possible. After that, he thinks about the value of translations. In this step, if the text has repeatability in other languages and cultures, the translator starts the imitation from an original text to create another text. It seems that this process is like what an artist does to create artworks.
2. resemblances between art and translation
On the basis of Aristotle's Poetics, we want to explain some resemblances between art and translation to describe our conception of translation as an art. We think those resemblances can convince us to see translation as an art.
The first resemblance between creation of artworks and translation is at the first step of them.
The first resemblance between the artistic creation and translation is in their first step. Viewing the environment and finding something for imitation is the first step of artistic creation, which is like confronting and reading a text for translation. It is clear that viewing the environment deeply and reading a text carefully are necessary for artistic creation and translation because a surface of them cannot be suitable and helpful for Mimesis or imitation.
The second step of artistic creation and translation is the accurate understanding of the subject of imitation. In Fact, deep and accurate understanding is necessary for exact imitation. Without comprehensive understanding, imitation of things is not possible. Both artist and translator in the process of imitation should take this step. In the other words, it seems that by deep and exact understanding they can find the direction of similarity between subject of imitation and artwork or translated text.
Rewriting text in a new language like representing an image is the third step of imitation that is visible in the process of artistic creation and translation. In this step, combining their understanding and viewing the environment, translator and artist try to create the subject of imitation in a new style and a new form. 
The last step of imitation in artistic creation and translation is that of choosing colors in art and words and other literary elegances in translation, and using them. In this step, paying attention to details of their work, artist and translator try to create a new thing that is similar to the subject of imitation, although it is a new thing and there may be some differences between them. As was stated, the understanding of the subject of imitation by artist and translator is a very important step, in which, however, their thought of the subject of imitation is not totally the same as it, and so, during creating the new thing their understanding and thought can affect the form and the style of the new thing.
3. conclusion
In conclusion, it seems that, because of the similarity between art and translation based on Aristotle's conception of art, we can move from ethical and aesthetic functions of art, and artist's moral duty in creating art, to the same aspects in translation and translator.
In other words, based on Aristotle conception, while translator makes a faithful imitation and a creative presentation of the source, after the ethical decision to translate and promote the original text, he should pay attention to linguistic and cultural details of his translation. In this regard, while observing his audience in the target language, he also refreshes his insights and attitudes because this two-sided view, the center of gravity of moderation, will take into account the aspects of beauty and ethics in the cultural interactions of societies.
References
-      Aristotle, (1382), Ethics of Nicomachus, translation of Mohammad Hasan Lotfi, Tehran, New Design.
-      Aristotle, (1388), About the Art of Poetry, Translated by Soheil Mohsen Afnan, Tehran, Hekmat.
-      Aristotle, (1973), Fan al-Sha'r, Abdul Rahman Badawi's research, Beirut, Dar al-Safat.
-      Aristotle (1392), Sermon, Translation by Ismail Sa'adat, Tehran, Hermes.
-      Aristotle, (2006), Metaphysics, Sharaf al-Din Khorasani Translation, Fourth Edition, Tehran, Wisdom.
-      Plato, (1380), Period of works, translation by Hasan Lotfi, Tehran, Kharazmi.
-      Bermann, Sandra and Wood (Edit), (2005), Michael, Nation, language, and the ethics of translation, Princeton University Press.
-      Koskinen, Kaisa, (2000), Beyond Ambivalence; Postmodernity and the Ethics of Translation, University of Tampere.
-      Meschonnic, Henri, (2011), Ethics and Politics of Translating, Translated and edited by Pier-Pascale Boulanger, Benjamins Translation Library.
-      Venuti, Lawrence (Edit), (2000),The Translation Studies Reader, Routledge.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • poetics
  • representation
  • artistic creation
  • art of translation
  • cultural relationship

References:

-         Aristotle (2004), Akhlag e Nicomachus, Persian translation by Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Tehran: Tarh e Now.
-         Aristotle (2009), Darbabe Honar e Sher, Persian Translation by Soheil Mohsen Afnan, Tehran: Hekmat pub.
-         Aristotle (1973), Fan al-Sha'er, Abdul Rahman Behdwi's research, Dar Al-Qaafa.
-         Aristotle (2014), Khatabe, Persian Translation by Ismail Sa'adat, Tehran: Hermes.
-         Aristotle (2007), Metaphysics, Persian Translation by Sharfaddin Khorasani Translation, Fourth Edition, Tehran: Hekmat.
-         Plato (2002) Doreye Asare Aflaton, Persian Translation by Hasan Lotfi, Tehran: Kharazmi.
-         Bermann, Sandra and Wood (Edit) (2005) Michael, Nation, language, and the ethics of translation, Princeton University Press.
-         Koskinen, Kaisa, (2000) Beyond Ambivalence; Postmodernity and the Ethics of Translation, University of Tampere.
-         Meschonnic, Henri, (2011) Ethics and Politics of Translating, Translated and edited by Pier-Pascale Boulanger, Benjamins Translation Library.
-         Venuti, Lawrence (Edit) (2000) the Translation Studies Reader, Routledge.
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