The Quarterly Journal of Philosophical Investigations

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی- پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استادیار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه تهران

4 استاد دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

این مقاله پس از برجسته نمودن چیستی رسالت اجتماعی دانشگاه جستجوگر حقیقت (هومبلتی) به واکاوی نسبت این رسالت با کنشگری­انسانی خواهد پرداخت. به منظور دستیابی به این مقصود، بیشتر روش­ تحلیل فلسفی استنتاج به کار گرفته شد. روشن نمودن معنای معیار از رسالت اجتماعی دانشگاه، نخستین گام مقاله است. گام بعدی با تکیه به این معیار به بازخوانی رسالت اجتماعی این ایده دانشگاهی خواهد پرداخت. تار و پود این بخش، بیشتر،  قسمتی از اندیشه­های اصلی فیشته و هومبلت، دو ایده­پرداز نهاد دانشگاه در عصر روشنگری خواهد بود. یافتن مولفه­های اصلی کشنگری انسانی در این ایده و نسبت آن با این مقوله گام اصلی مقاله را در بر خواهد گرفت. دستاورد مقاله نشان می­دهد که گسترش فرهیختگی در اجتماع و اعتلای فرهنگ اخلاقی ملت، به عنوان رسالت اجتماعی این ایده، بدون توجه به کنشگری­انسانی، امری ناشدنی خواهند بود. فراتر از این، به نظر می­رسد در این ایده، اصلی­ترین نمود کنشگری آدمی را باید در رسالت اجتماعی آن جست؛ تا جایی که می­توان از در هم­تنیدگی استوار این دو سخن به میان آورد. ذکر پاره­ای از دلایل ماندگاری این ایده و اشاره به شماری از ظرفیت های الهام­بخش آن، که می­تواند در ایده­پردازی­های نو درباره نهاد دانشگاه در ایران کارگر باشد، بخش پایانی مقاله را در بر خواهد گرفت.

تازه های تحقیق

Introduction

 

 However the Humboldtian idea of the university, investigated from many aspects, but as seems, it has more potential for further studying. One of these attitudes which need to further study is finding the relationship between the social mission of this idea and its anthropological foundations. Here, one of the most important cases of these foundations is human agency. Nevertheless, the connection between these two parts (social mission and human agency in Humboldt' idea) has not been taken into account adequately, then their relationship is not so clear. The importance of this connection, more than anywhere else, could be inspiring for Iranian Higher education, which the anthropological issues, used less for creating a new idea about it. It also must be mentioned that, generally, Humboldt influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and Romantic era, then both the social mission of his university’s idea and mentioned human agency is no exception from this background. 

 

University Social Mission

 

 Nowadays many types of research show that the social mission of the university is multi-dimensions. Among the many attempts that try to show what university’s social mission is, Scott (2006) by emphasizing service tries to define this mission. Alongside this, some others, by a point on a public role, believe that the focus of the university's social mission should be on the people, instead of State or Bazar (Simons & Haverhals & Biesta. (2007). By accepting these perspectives, the social mission of Humboldtain Idea is promoting the moral culture of the nation.

  

Human Agency

 

The key role and hardcore in Humboldt’s is human agency; freedom and power to choose are essential for this interpretation of the agency. Here whit without believing in agency human, humanity could not reach and access the proper position of humanity.  

  

Conclusion

 

 Results shows, without considering the human agency, the expansion of cultivating in society and promoting an ethical culture of the nation, will be not possible. Furthermore, it seems the main phenomenon of the human agency should be considered in the social mission of this idea, as far as we could say they are interdependent and linked to each other.

 

References

 

 

- Fallon, D. (1980). The German university: A heroic idea in conflict with the modern world. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press.

- Fichte, J, G. (1980). Conferences Sur La Destination Du Savant. (E, Saadat, Trans). Tehran, Farhang e Javid, (In Persian).

- Habermas, J. (1987). The Idea of the University: Learning Processes. (R. Ramazani, Trans) In Sefidkhosh, M. (Ed): The Idea of the university. (pp. 131–157). Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. (In Persian). 

- Hofstetter, J, M. (2001). The Romantic Idea of a University - England and Germany, 1770-1850. (S, M. Shamekhi, Trans) In Sefidkhosh, M. (Ed): The Idea of the university. (pp. 271–336). Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. (In Persian). 

- Holford, John. (2014). The lost honor of the Social Dimension: Bologna, exports, and the idea of the university. International Journal of Lifelong Education. 33. 7-25. 10.1080/02601370.2013.873210.

- Humboldt, V, W. “Über die innere und äußere Organisation der höheren wissenschaftlichen Anstalten in Berlin.” (M. Sefidkhosh. Trans) (In Press) (In Persian).

- Josephson, P., Karlsohn, T., & Östling, J. (Eds.). (2014). 

- Kant, I. (1784). Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment. (H. Fuladpour Trans) Kelk. (In Persian). 

- Kant, I. (1979). The Conflict of the Philosophy Faculty whit the Theology Faculty in the Conflict of Faculties. (S, M. Shamekhi, Trans) In Sefidkhosh, M. (Ed): The Idea of the university. (pp. 271–336). Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. (In Persian). 

- Konrad, F, M. (2012). Wilhelm Von Humboldt’s Contribution to a Theory of Bildung. In: Siljander, P, Kivelä, & A, Sutinen, A. (Eds.): Theories of Bildung and growth. Connections and controversies between continental educational thinking and American pragmatism. (pp. 107-124). Rotterdam, Boston. Sense Publishers.

- Masschelein, J. & Ricken, N. (2003). Do We (Still) Need the Concept of Bildung?. Educational Philosophy and Theory. 35. 139 - 154. 10.1111/1469-5812.00015.

- Nybom, T. (2003). The Humboldt Legacy: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the European University. Higher Education Policy. 16(2). 144-159

- Paletschek, S. (2001). The invention of Humboldt and the impact of national socialism: the German university idea in the first half of the twentieth century. Szöllösi-Janze, M (ed.): Science in the Third Reich. Oxford: Berg, 2001, S. 37-58.

- Scott, J. C. (2006). The Mission of the University: Medieval to Postmodern Transformations. The Journal of Higher Education 77(1), 1-39. The Ohio State University Press. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from Project MUSE database.

- Sefidkhosh, M. (2016). Humboldt and the idea of establishing a university. Institute for Social and Cultural Studies. (In Persian)

- Segal, J, M. (2008). Agency, Illusion, and Well-Being: Essays in Moral Psychology and Philosophical. Economics. Lexington Books.

The Humboldtian Tradition. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004271944

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Human Agency and Social Mission of the Humboldtian Model of University in the Age of Enlightenment and Romantic era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Banyasady 1
  • meysam sefidkhos 2
  • khosrow bagheri 3
  • Mahdi Sajjadi 4

1 Ph.D. Student of Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty member of Shahid Behshti University. Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty member of University of Tehran. Tehran, Iran

4 Faculty member of Tarbiat Modares University

چکیده [English]

After highlighting the importance of social mission in Humboldtian university idea, this article will inquire about the relation between this mission and human agency. To do this we employ a more deduction philosophical analysis method. Clarifying the meaning of the social mission of the university, which we use here, will be the first step. According to this criterion, in the second step, we will read out the social mission of this idea. The base for this part is more the Fichte and Humboldt's texts. Finding the main elements of human agency and its relation to this idea of the university will be the main step. In this case, results show, without considering the human agency, the expansion of cultivating in society and promoting the ethical culture of a nation, will be not possible. Furthermore, it seems the main phenomenon of the human agency should be considered in the social mission of this idea, as far as we could say they are too interdependent and linked to each other. Refer to some reasons why this idea is still alive and introduce some dimensions of our society, will be present in the last section. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Humboldtian Idea of the university
  • Bildung
  • social mission of the University
  • philosophy of university
  • Fichte
  • Humboldt
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-       Fallon, D. (1980). The German university: A heroic idea in conflict with the modern world. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press.
-       Fichte, J, G. (1980). Conferences Sur La Destination Du Savant. (E, Saadat, Trans). Tehran, Farhang e Javid, (In persian).
-       Habermas, J. (1987). The Idea of the University: Learning Processes. (R. Ramazani, Trans) In Sefidkhosh, M. (Ed): The Idea of the university. (pp. 131–157). Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. (In persian).
-       Hofstetter, J, M. (2001). The Romantic Idea of a University - England and Germany, 1770-1850. (S, M. Shamekhi, Trans) In Sefidkhosh, M. (Ed): The Idea of the university. (pp. 271–336). Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. (In persian).
-       Holford, John. (2014). The lost honour of the Social Dimension: Bologna, exports and the idea of the university. International Journal of Lifelong Education. 33. 7-25. 10.1080/02601370.2013.873210.
-       Humboldt, V, W. “Über die innere und äußere Organisation der höheren wissenschaftlichen Anstalten in Berlin.” (M. Sefidkhosh. Trans) (In Press) (In Persian).
-       Josephson, P., Karlsohn, T., & Östling, J. (Eds.). (2014). The Humboldtian Tradition. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004271944
-       Kant, I. (1784). Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment. (H. Fuladpour Trans) Kelk. (In persian).
-       Kant, I. (1979). The Conflict of the Philosophy Faculty whit the Theology Faculty in the Conflict of Faculties. (S, M. Shamekhi, Trans) In Sefidkhosh, M. (Ed): The Idea of the university. (pp. 271–336). Tehran, Hekmat Publisher. (In persian).
-       Konrad, F, M. (2012). Wilhelm Von Humboldt’s Contribution to a Theory of Bildung. In: Siljander, P, Kivelä, & A, Sutinen, A. (Eds.): Theories of Bildung and growth. Connections and controversies between continental educational thinking and American pragmatism. (pp. 107-124). Rotterdam, Boston. Sense Publishers.
-       Masschelein, J. & Ricken, N. (2003). Do We (Still) Need the Concept of Bildung?. Educational Philosophy and Theory. 35. 139 - 154. 10.1111/1469-5812.00015.
-       Nybom, T. (2003). The Humboldt Legacy: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the European University. Higher Education Policy. 16(2). 144-159
-       Paletschek, S. (2001). The invention of Humboldt and the impact of national  socialism: the German university idea in the first half of the twentieth century. Szöllösi-Janze, M (ed.): Science in the Third Reich. Oxford: Berg, 2001, S. 37-58.
-       Sefidkhosh, M. (2016). Humboldt and the idea of establishing a university. Institute for Social and Cultural Studies. (In persian)
-       Scott, J. C. (2006). The Mission of the University: Medieval to Postmodern Transformations. The Journal of Higher Education 77(1), 1-39. The Ohio State University Press. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from Project MUSE database.
-       Segal, J, M. (2008). Agency, Illusion, and Well-Being: Essays in Moral Psychology and Philosophical. Economics. Lexington Books.
-       Simons, M & Haverhals, B & Biesta, G. (2007). Introduction: The university revisited. Studies in Philosophy and Education. 26. 395-404. 10.1007/s11217-007-9051-5.
-       Zgaga, P. (2012). Review of Ronald Barnett, Being a University, Routledge, 2011. Studies in philosophy and education. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11217-012-9292-9.
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