Journal of Philosophical Investigations

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of Sociology Department, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Administrative Sciences Economics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


As one of the most prominent thinkers of the twentieth century, Martin Heidegger has made fundamental criticisms of the subjectivism of the modern world. He critically examines the 2,500-year history of the West as a manifestation of metaphysical rationality. Heidegger contrasts with the Cartesian and Kantian calculus thinking, the profound thinking based on the metaphysics of the carpenter. Heidegger believes that with Descartes as the creator of the paradigm of modernity, subjectivism is spreading in the world. One of the inevitable consequences of the supremacy of subjectivism is the dominance of technological rationality over the world. For Heidegger, technology is not a mere tool; instead, it is a special kind of development and way of thinking that imposes its possessive and calculating logic on everything and everyone. In other words, in the paradigm of knowledge of the modern foundation, existence is manifested technologically, which has created a special kind of rationality called technological rationality. The premise of this article is based on the fact that although Ali Shariati, as a critic of the modern world, criticizes scientism and mechanism, his critique of technology and mechanism is more political and sociological. Also, like Heidegger, he never could critique the philosophical, theological, and ontological subjectivism and technological rationality of the modern world.


Main Subjects

AbdulKarimi, Bijan. (2013). Heidegger in Iran, Tehran: Research Institute of Iranian Wisdom and Philosophy. (in persian)
AbdulKarimi, Bijan. (2015). Shariati and Our Future Thinking, Tehran: Naqd-e Farhang Publications. (in persian)
Abdulkarimi, Bijan. (2018). Questioning the Possibility of Religion in the Contemporary World, Tehran: Naqd-e Farhang Publications. (in persian)
Ahmadi, Babak. (1994). Modernity and Critical Thought, Tehran: Markaz Publications. (in persian)
Ahmadi, Babak. (2002). Heidegger and the Fundamental Question, Tehran: Markaz Publications. (in persian)
Jabbari, Akbar. (2011). Philosophy of Gender Reproduction, Isfahan: Porsesh Publications. (in persian)
Jabbari, Akbar. (2013). Dasein Analysis, Isfahan: Porsesh Publications. (in persian)
Jamadi, Siavash. (2006). Background and Time of Phenomenology, Tehran: Phoenix Publications. (in persian)
Moinzadeh, Mohammad. (2013). Sustainability in the Age of World Image, Farhang-e-Emrooz website, p. 5, (in persian)
Moinzadeh, Mehdi. (2014). Critique of Modern Science, Farhang-e-Amrooz website, p. 4, (in persian)
Nozari, Hossein Ali. (2005). Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School in Social Sciences and Humanities, Tehran: Ad Publications. (in persian)
Pazouki, Shahram. (2000). Descartes and Modernity, Quarterly of Philosophy, No. 1: 176. (in persian)
Shariati Ali. (1982). Worldview and Ideology, Collection of Works, Vol. 23, Tehran: Enteshar Publishing Co. (in persian)
Shariati, Ali. (1979). Return to Self, Return to Which Self? Tehran: Qalam Publications. (in persian)
Shariati, Ali. (1981). Woman, Collection of Works, Vol. 21, Tehran: Qalam Publications. (in persian)
Shariati, Ali. (1982). Unconscious Man, Collection of Works, Vol. 25, Tehran: Qalam Publications. (in persian)
Shariati, Ali. (1983). Man, Islam and the Schools of the West, Collection of Works, Vol. 24, Tehran: Elham Publications. (in persian)
Shariati, Ali. (1985). Characteristics of New Ages, Collection of Works, Vol. 31, Tehran: Chapakhsh Publications. (in persian)
Shariati, Ali. (1999). History of Civilization, Collection of Works, Vol. 12, Tehran: Qalam Publications. (in persian)
Shariati, Ehsan. (2016). The Technical Nature Is Metaphysical, Mehr News Agency, page 4. (in persian)
Zare ShirinKandi, Mohammad. (2017). Phenomenology of the First Stages of our Philosophical Consciousness, Tehran: Hermes Publications. (in persian)
Zimran, Mohammad. (2006). Philosophical Thoughts at the End of the Second Millennium, Tehran: Hermes Publications. (in persian)
Zimran, Mohammad. (2010). Philosophy between the Present and the Future, Tehran: Payan Publications. (in persian)